Thyroid History

History of the Fluoride/Iodine Antagonism
© 1996 - 2013 PFPC Canada

1854 - Maumene feeds sodium fluoride to a dog and causes a goiter to appear(also spelled goitre -> thyroid enlargement). He is the first to consider fluorides as a cause of goiter. Suggests that high fluoride in water might be the cause of endemic goiter.

1867 - Rabuteau investigates French goiter areas, and is convinced that they are caused by fluoride in the water.

1869 - First experiments with sodium fluoride, showing inhibitory effects on glycolysis [a thyroid hormone - associated event] in isolated muscle tissue, are published by Nasse.(see also: 1937 Litzka)

1917/1918 - McKay, the dentist who investigated the cause of ‘mottled teeth’ - later to be renamed ‘dental fluorosis’, writes in the "Dental Cosmos" that enamel conditions in children with ‘mottled teeth’ are identical to those reported by Prof. Greves in Holland as being due to thyroid dysfunction (goiter). Greves reports that when rats were given water from the Utrecht area, goiter and mottled enamel developed.

1919-1921 - Ignorant of McKay’s work, Goldemberg (Argentina) investigates the areas then commonly referred to as "goiterous waters" ('Kropfwaesser'), and reviews the work by others (Repin, Gautier, Clausmann, McCarrison, Parhou and Goldstein, Pighini, Christiani, Cahages, Houssay, Tappeiner, Schulz, Brandt and Pisotti). His findings convince him that the world-wide occurrence of goiter and cretinism is NOT due to iodine deficiency as commonly believed, but is the result of excessive fluoride intake from air, food and water. He conducts animal experiments to test his hypothesis and reports that 2 to 3 mgs of NaF- daily for 6 to 8 months produced a 5 to 6-fold increase in the size of the thyroid gland. He calls the condition ‘cretinisme fluorique’.

1923 - Pighini causes goiters in rats, dogs and chicken by giving them fluoridated water from a goiterous area. When sodium fluoride was administered, the same histological changes in the thyroid were seen as are produced in endemic goiter.

1926 - Goldemberg is the first to take medical advantage of the now much-observed iodine-fluoride antagonism. He concludes that fluoride - being the reason behind iodine deficiency/goiter areas - would therefore also reduce the high iodine levels observed in Basedow patients, and he begins to use fluorides to effectively cure Basedow's disease - hyperthyroidism caused by excessive iodine consumption.

  Goldemberg publishes extensively between 1921 and 1935 on his findings of applying fluorides as anti-thyroid medication.

1927 - Gorlitzer von Mundy (Austria) reports that daily intake of 3 mgs of fluoride in rabbits and rats leads to goiter and cretinism-like conditions.

1930 - Christiani publishes on the changes in thyroid function from fluoride injections.
[Earlier, in 1925, Christiani and Gautier became the first to use the term ‘fluorosis’. They called it "La Fluorose" and "Cachexie fluorique", using these terms to describe "fluoride intoxication" (not yet described as "dental
fluorosis"...), as induced by fluoride emissions from a Swiss aluminum smelter.

1932 - Gorlitzer von Mundy (Austria) publishes findings on 1500 experiments using fluoride to inhibit thyroid function in mice and metamorphosis in tadpoles.

  • NOTE: As it had been shown that metamorphosis in tadpoles was regulated by thyroid hormones, one had to show inhibition of metamorphosis to satisfy claims that a medication was an “anti-thyroid”. This test was known as the "Gudernatsche Tadpole Test".

1932 - Maccioro (Italy) uses sodium fluoride in the successful treatment of hyperthyroidism.

1932 - Wilhelm May (Germany) also starts fluoride therapy in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, using calcium fluoride tablets, topical ointments, etc..

1933 - Gorlitzer von Mundy (Austria) reports more on fluoride’s effect on the thyroid.

1934 - Purjesz and colleagues (Poland) give chicken eggs high in fluoride to hyperthyroid patients and achieve lowering of body temperature, of pulse and BMR, as well as weight gain; report that most of the fluoride is found in liver; no fluoride is found in the blood of healthy people.

1934 - Raveno (USA) uses fluoride in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

1934 - Chang, Phillips, et al. report that in the thyroid of cows fed fluoride for a long time, the fluoride content increased to 240 times as much. [Note: in the original text it states 24 times, however, Dr. Phillips later corrected the text figures in a communication with Wilson & DeEds -> see: 1940]

1935 - Schutte (Cuba) uses fluoride in the successful treatment of hyperthyroidism.

1935 - Phillips et al. (USA) report that fluoride and thyroid have synergistic effects on fluorosis in chicken.

1935 - Phillips et al. conduct further numerous studies with rats and again find the same results: fluoride and thyroid have synergistic toxic effects. 

1936 - Phillips conducts further animal experiments and verifies the 1935

1937 - Litzka (Germany) discusses the mode of action of fluorides in treating patients with hyperthyroidism: fluoride antagonizes thyroid hormone effects/glycolysis in liver and influences glycolysis in skeletal muscle.

1937 - Wilhelm May (Germany) reports further on his fluoride therapy, including the use of sodium fluoride ointments (up to one year-therapy), and Fluorotyrosin (6 to 8 - week therapy). Also reports on findings that two other common medications given in the treatment of hyperthyroidism - Solvitren and Tyronorman - had been found to contain fluoride, in fact double the amount used in Fluorotyrosin. Further May reports that the traditional areas where people had been sent for “natural therapy” (‘Kur’) were found to contain higher amounts of fluoride in the water.

1937 - Kraft (Knoll AG, Germany) investigates inorganic sodium fluoride and organic fluoride compounds fluorobenzoic acid and fluorotyrosine and reports that all fluoride compounds inhibit thyroid hormones. It is a matter of amplification - the fluoride component is essential.

1937 - Cheng & Reid (China) report on thyroid damage in rats fed fluorspar
(calcium fluoride).

1938 - Inouye et al. (Japan) use fluoride iontophoresis in the effective treatment of hyperthyroidism.

1938 - Hosoi & Okura (Japan) attempt to replicate Gorlitzer’s use of fluoride baths to treat hyperthyroidism and report the same successful results.

1939 - Steyn (South Africa) first reports on his findings of fluoride-induced goiter.

1939 - Floyd DeEds (USA) summarizes his findings on fluoride toxicity and thyroid dysfunction as the cause of mottled teeth (dental fluorosis). His concern is the increasing use of fluoride in pesticides.

    He writes:

    "Fluorine toxicity is not an isolated problem, but must be considered in relation to the functional state of the thyroid gland..."

1940 - Wilson and DeEds (USA) report dental fluorosis in rats as a result of the synergistic action of fluoride and thyroid hormones. Results are described as "strikingly clearcut".

1940 - In a second experiment the same investigators (DeEds et al, USA) show that thryotropin (TSH) causes identical bleaching of teeth (Dental Fluorosis) as does fluoride. To make sure, study is repeated - with identical results.

1941 - Wilson (UK) reports in the Lancet on his findings that mottling of teeth is prevalent in the same areas in the UK which had previously been prevalent with goitre.

1941 - Schwarz (Germany) prepares fluoride/iodide anti-thyroid medications and combines with sedatives.

1941 - DeEds (USA) publishes in the JADA on his findings of producing dental fluorosis in rats with TSH and thryoid extract, and states that variations in pituitary and thyroid function may be the factors in the individual variation in susceptibility to F toxicity.

1941 - Guercio & Cazzola (Italy) report that fluoride inhibits the action of TSH in the thyroid of guinea pigs. They conduct another study on rabbits and find the same results.

1942 - Euler & Eichler (Germany) report that the chronic administration of organic fluoride compounds (fluorotyrosine) cause the same defects in bone as inorganic fluorides, although no dissociation takes place, ascribing effects to the whole molecule.

1942 - Euler & Eichler further report that the chronic administration of organic fluoride compounds cause the same defects in teeth as inorganic fluorides. Identical crystal formation is seen, although no soluble (free) fluoride is observed, leading the authors to the conclusion that such crystals declared by others to contain "calcium fluoride" could not be such. The organic compounds did not dissolve.

1942 - Hatfield et al. (USA) report on experiments with low doses of fluoride (rock phosphate) and show that iodine content in thyroid is increased as fluoride is increased in the ration (Fluoride = TSH)

1944 - The editorial in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) acknowledges that "...drinking water containing as little as 1.2 to 3ppm of fluorine will cause such developmental goitre".

1946 - The Atomic Energy Commission (Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology - headed by Harold Carpenter Hodge, incomprehensibly at the same time also head of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) - acknowledges the German findings that all fluoride compounds - organic or inorganic - inhibit thyroid hormone activity, and declares this issue a research priority. No further research into this issue is conducted, however.

1947 - Casterra uses Knoll’s "K17", later to be renamed "Capacin”, in the successful treatment of 500 hyperthyroid patients.

1948 - Steyn (Africa) finds that fluoride has definite anti-thyroid effects. He investigates the incidence of endemic goiter in the North Western Cape Province in South Africa and reports that his findings "closely agree with the ... 1944 JADA editorial", and that goiters are actually 'fluoride-induced'.

1949 - Richard May reports on the highly successful use of the organic fluoride compounds Pardinon (IG Farben) and Capacin (Knoll AG) in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Up until 1943, 10,000 patients had been cured.

1949 - Euler et al. test various organic fluoride compounds and find again that all organic fluoride compounds inhibit thyroid hormone activity.

1949 - Ferguson & Sellers (USA) report that low fluoride and thiouracil have additive effects on thyroid weight in rats.

1950 - Wilhelm May publishes monograph on the fluoride-iodine antagonism, including over 300 references, detailing the biochemical findings as known at this time. [Originally slated for publication in 1944, the lack of paper in Germany prohibits publication until 6 years later.]

1950 - Richard May reports that between 1935 and 1947 over 5000 hyperthyroid patients had been treated successfully with Pardinon and Capacin in the May clinic alone.

1952 - Kraft and Dengel (Germany) investigate yet more fluorophenyl-derived fluoride compounds, all of which lower BMR.

1952 - In the court case Reynolds Metals Corp vs Paul Martin hypothyroidism caused by fluoride is documented.

1953 - Wadwhani (India) reports that fluoride concentrated in thyroid gland of rats consuming 0.9mg F- per day.

1954 - Wespi (Italy) reports mottled teeth ('dental fluorosis') together with goiter in Italy.

1954 - Jentzer (Switzerland) reports that less than normal amounts of thyroid hormone are deposited in the pituitary gland when rabbits are given fluoride in water - at levels corresponding to that of artificially fluoridated water.

1955 - Benagiano & Fiorentini (Italy) describe the effects of fluoride on thyroid function. They find that the farther away from the toxic dose, the longer it takes for fluoride to cause thyroid changes. (This in accord with May (1950), who found that although it might take months - “sometimes even a year” - even low fluoride amounts would always be successful in lowering iodine levels...May urged the practioner to be patient...)

1955 - Korrodi, Wegmann, Galetti and Held also verify a fluoride - iodine antagonism, presuming that the fluoride ion pushes out the iodine in the thyroid gland.

1957 - Galetti et al. treat hyperthyroid patients with fluoride at daily doses lower than those estimated being the current average intake in the US, and document a significant reduction in protein-bound iodine, as well as an overall reduction of iodine and a reduction of iodine uptake by the thyroid gland.

1959 - Jentzer again shows reduced iodine levels in the pituitary gland under the influence of fluorides.

1960 - Gordinoff and Minder describe the results of experiments with radioactive iodine (I131) which show that fluorides remove an iodine atom during the conversion process (T4 to T3). Effects are dose-responsive, meaning the higher the fluoride intake the lower the iodine measurements.

1959/1960 - Anbar et al (Israel) report in Nature and other journals that fluoroborates and other fluoride compounds inhibit thyroid hormone transport and concentrate in the thyroid gland. [BTW: The first fluoroborate ‘safety document’ appeared in 1932!]

1960 - Stolc and Podoba report in Nature on how fluoride inhibits the enzymatic process responsible for conversion of T4 to T3. (This enzyme is now called deiodinase).

1962 - Steyn (Africa) reports that drinking water containing "as little as 1 to 2 ppm of fluorine can cause serious disturbances of general health and especially in normal thyroid gland function and in the normal processes of calcium-phosphate metabolism (parathyroid function)."

1962 - Spira reports on the fluorine-induced endocrine disturbances in mental illness.

1963 - Gorlitzer von Mundy reports on the [then] current knowledge gained from experiments by Gordonoff with I131 as to how the effects of the enzyme responsible for the T4 to T3 conversion were inhibited if a fluorine ion was absorbed before the conversion from T4 to T3 occurs.

1964 - Ritzel reports on disturbances in T4 metabolism in areas with fluoridated drinking water.

1964 - Steyn (Africa) - again - reviews the “overwhelming evidence” on the fluoride-iodine antagonism.
(Steyn, Maumene, Euler et al., Wadwhani, Wadwhani and Ramaswamy, Chang et al., Littich, Benagiano and Fiorentini, Fiorentini, Feltman, De Eds, Baume and Becks, Orban, Spira, Galetti et al., Gordonoff and Minder, Wilson, Wespi, Goldemberg, Todd, Coton, Gorlitzer, May, Hodenberg, Korrodi et al., Christiani, Jentzer, Grab and Overdisse)

1964 - Steyn reports on his detailed 1949-1950 experiments on young rats, conducted to determine if there was in fact a fluoride-iodine antagonism. The experiment, which ran for 12 months, showed that the more severe the teeth were mottled, the more severe the thyroid dysfunction. It further showed that iodine supplementation was not likely to prevent the endemic goiter caused by excessive fluoride in drinking water, and that fluoride intake needed to be reduced.

1969 - Rodesch et al. and Zor et al. independently report that fluoride mimicks TSH.

1969 - Siddiqui show small visible goiters in persons 14 to 17 years of age in India to be connected directly to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water.

1970 - Demole Review (WHO Monograph)

    In 1970, Vic Demole (another member of the Swiss "Fluor-und Jodkommission" (Fluoride and Iodine Commission) - the organization behind the fluoridated salt program, writes a review chapter in the WHO Monograph on the "Toxic Effects of Fluoride on the Thyroid".

    An example of gross scientific misconduct, Demole literally lies about most findings, often stating the exact opposite as the studies had reported. He outright denies that there is a fluoride- iodine antagonism, claims that no fluoride is concentrated in the thyroid, and that it has no effects on the synthesis of thyroxine (T4). 
    (Note: Demole similarly testified at the 1964 Dublin/Ireland fluoridation

    (A detailed analysis of this “review” is on the PFPC Science website.)

1970 - Ahn and Rosenberg confirm that fluoride mimicks TSH.

1970 - Burke documents that TSH and fluoride have additive effects.

1971 - Narbutt et al. show that in rats fed sodium fluoride at 0.1 and 1 mg/day there is an increase in the thyroid weights after 4 weeks, irrespective of dosage. Narbutt recommends iodine administration during fluoride prophylaxis.

1972 - Willems et al. document that sodium fluoride blocks thyroid hormone secretion.

1972 - Day and Powell-Jackson study 648 people in 13 mountainous regions in Nepal where the iodine content in the water is low and find a close relationship between fluoride intake and the incidence of goiter.

1976 - Polish researchers Bobek and Kahl document that rats consuming fluoride in water at 0.1 to 1 mg/day have significantly lowered T4, T3, and free thyroxine index in plasma. They ascribe this to an inhibition of thyroid hormone transport by fluoride.

1976 - Aliev finds that goiter, caries and fluorosis are correlated in Azerbaijan.

1976 - Orgiazzi et al. use fluoride as TSH analogue in assessing "cold nodules".

1978 - In Germany, thyroid medications like "Druesensalbe Fides", "Strumadragees Fides" and "Strumetten" still list calcium fluoride and hydrogen fluoride as active ingredients, and are listed in the 1978 index of the German Federal Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry. ("Schilddruesentherapeutika" in "Rote Liste", Bundesverband der Pharmazeutischen Industrie, e.V., Frankfurt, Germany)

1978 - Maccia et al. use fluoride as TSH analogue (hyperplastic thyroid, hyperfunctioning follicular carcinoma, "cold" nodules).

1978 - Hansen (USA) shows thyroid damage in mice drinking water fluoridated at 1 ppm.

1978 - Kalderon & Sheth use fluoride as TSH analogue ("cold" nodules).

1978 - George Waldbott writes that in most cases of poisoning from fluoridated water in which he had occasion to study the action of the thyroid gland, it's function was low. He cites a case of a 33-year-old male who exhibited typical manifestations of pre-skeletal fluorosis and a basal metabolism rate of -22, indicative of hypothyroidism. Within three months after the man ceased consuming fluoridated water, the thyroid function had returned to normal
(BMR=0). In addition, Waldbott writes that "simultaneously, other symptoms associated with low grade fluoride poisoning - including excessive thirst, headaches, blurred vision, arthritis in shoulders, elbows, knees, and gastrointestinal disturbances - also disappeared." [He did not know that the symptoms he ascribed to "low-grade fluoride poisoning" would likewise be considered symptoms of hypothyroidism some 20 years later.]


1979 - Toccafondi et al. use fluoride as TSH analogue in assessing hyperfunctioning nodules (thyroid toxic adenoma).

1979 - Walinder et al. use fluoride as TSH analogue to activate human thyroid tumors (nodules).

1979 - Hillman et al. find that cattle afflicted with fluorosis develop hypothyroidism.(Fluorosis here caused by mineral supplements.)

1982 - Mizukami et al. use fluoride as TSH analogue (adenomatous goiter).

1983 - Sidora et al. find iodine deficiency and "adaptive amplification of the hypophyseal-thyroid system, not ensuring an absolute compensation in the citizens using drinking water with an ‘enhanced’ fluorine content as compared to a ‘decreased’ one, accompanied by an augmented incidence of functional disturbance".

1983 - Desai et al.(India) report increased incidence of goiter in endemic fluorosis areas.

1984 - Burgi Review 

    Burgi, from the Swiss "Fluor- und Jodkommission" (Fluoride and Iodine Commission) - the organization behind the fluoridated salt program, publishes a literature "review" on "fluorine and thyroid gland function". 

    In what can only be described as yet another attempt to whitewash the ever-increasing body of research documenting the adverse effects of fluoride on thyroid hormone metabolism, Burgi - as did his colleague Demole in 1970 - uses only select data from a variety of papers. Some major papers/studies are entirely misrepresented. Many studies showing adverse effects are not mentioned at all.

    (A detailed analysis of this "review" is on the PFPC Science website.)

1985 - Bachinskii et al. document how fluorides at 2.3 ppm in water cause tension of function of the pituitary-thyroid system that is expressed in TSH-elevated production, a decrease in the T3 concentration [both sure-tell diagnostic signs of hypothyroidism] and more intense absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid [as in iodine deficiency]. The results lead to a conclusion that excess of fluorine in drinking water was a risk factor of more rapid development of thyroid pathology.

1985 - Clark and Gerend use fluoride as TSH analogue in human thyroid cancers.

1988 - Zhao publishes first results of investigations into mutual interactive effects of fluoride and iodine in goiter and dental fluorosis.

1988 - Guan et al. report on synergistic effects of iodine deficiency and fluoride excess in rat thyroid.

1988 - Liu et al. study fluorosis patients and find significant alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism, including increased rT3 levels, and hence low T3 and abnormal T3/T4 ratios.

1989 - Tokar' and others in a study on workers exposed to fluorides write that "changes in the pituitary-thyroid axis are caused by disorders of the regulatory chain and fluorine impact on thyroid hormones' metabolism at the level of target cells". (-> G-proteins)

1989 - Ren et al. report more findings on the devastating effects on IQ of fluoride in low iodine areas.

1991 - Lin Fa-Fu et al. report that a low iodine intake coupled with "high"
(0.88ppm) fluoride intake excaberates the central nervous lesions and the somatic developmental disturbance of iodine deficiency. The authors considered the possibility that "excess" fluoride ion affected normal de-iodination. Fluorides (dose-dependently) cause increase of reverse T3 (rT3) and elevated TSH levels, as well as increased I131 uptake (see: Bachinskii et al, 1985).

1992 - Lin et al. (China) report on 10 years of research showing that serum rT3 levels correlate significantly with fluoride levels in water. The higher the fluoride concentration, the higher the rT3 levels. Suggest rT3 levels as a marker for chronic fluoride poisoning.

1991 - Delemer et al. show that fluoroaluminate (AlF4-) and TSH have additive effects.

1993 - Brtko et al. find that fluoride inhibits binding of 125I-T3 to its receptor in rat liver nuclei.

1993 - Desai et al. investigate 22,276 people in India and find dental fluorosis and goiter significantly and positively correlated.

1994 - Tezelmann et al. report that fluoride, by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentration, causes desensitization of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr). No specific thyroid factor(s) other than increased levels of cAMP are required for TSHr desensitization.

1994 - Yang et al. investigate intelligence in children and report that high iodine and high fluoride exert “severe damage to the human body”.

1995 - Balabolkin et al. study the thyroid and immune statuses in workers continuously exposed to fluorine. "...T3 is seen reduced in 51% of the workers. The examinees with 'euthyroid condition' had immune disorders with an allergic tendency (increased number of B-lymphocytes, immunoglobulins A). In workers with subclinical hypothyroidism, the immune alterations were more evident, T-lymphocytes count rose, but their functional activity declined, indicating impaired cooperation of immunocytes as a result of imperfect control under low concentrations of T3." (aberrant G protein activation).

1996 - Mikhailets et al. again report on the low T3 levels in same workers exposed to fluorides. Suggests that the "low T3" syndrome could be used as a diagnostic tool in assessment of "fluorosis".

1996 - Mahmood investigates the effects of low doses of sodium fluoride on the thyroid glands of guinea pigs. Findings are:

    1. Depletion of colloid from the follicles.
    2. Shrinkage of follicles.
    3. Disruption of follicular basement membrane associated with oedema and degeneration of the follicular epithelial cells.
    4. Increased follicular vascularity.
    5. Fatty degeneration in the inter-follicular connective tissue.

1998 - Zhao et al. conduct an extensive study on mice receiving several fluoride-iodine combinations in addition to basal diet. The authors find that iodine and fluorine have "mutually interacting" effects on both goiter and fluorosis in the experimental mice.

1998 - Swarup et al., investigating fluoride-intoxicated cattle near an aluminum smelter in India, find decreased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) in the affected animals when compared to normal animals. 

1999 - Data by Jooste et al shows that goitre occurrence in iodine-sufficient areas in Africa is due to fluoride. In 5 out of 6 villages goiter prevalence directly corresponds to fluoride in water, observable at concentrations even lower than deemed "optimal" for "caries prevention".

2001 - Negoita et al. report the increase of acquired hypothyroidism in the St. Regis Akwesasne Mohawks, a population long known to be poisoned by fluoride emissions from a Reynolds aluminum smelter.

2001 - 2002 - Gupta et al. (India) and Suketa (Japan) show that in cases of fluorosis there is hyperparathyroidism, as seen in elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels.

  It is now known that elevated PTH levels are caused by the prolonged elevation of thyrotropin (TSH) levels (i.e. Paloyan et al, 1997). Fluoride is a TSH analogue. See next item...

2002 - As a result of research into molecular biology there are hundreds upon hundreds of studies available documenting the actions of fluorides upon G proteins, the "On" and "Off" switches involved in cellular signal transmission.

  During the 1980s and 1990s fluorides become known as the universal G-protein activator. Although there have been numerous studies before showing that fluorides act like TSH, the thyroid-stimulating-hormone - as seen above -, it can now be documented in deep detail, for it is known that G proteins in thyroid physiology are normally absolutely dependent on TSH and are inactive without it. TSH is the master, sometimes also referred to as the "first violinist in the orchestra".

  The TSH receptor is the only receptor known able to activate all G protein families, an activity directly imitated by fluoride.

see also: Tables


2004 - Shen et al. show both an antagonistic as well as synergistic relationship of iodine and fluoride on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats, depending on the amount of iodine.

2004 - Wang et al. investigate the effects of fluoride and low iodine on biochemical indexes in the brain and learning/memory in offspring rats.

  • "In comparison with control rats, the learning and memory ability of the offspring rats was depressed by high fluoride, low iodine, or the combination of high fluoride and low iodine. Brain protein was decreased by low iodine and even more by the combined interaction of high fluoride and low iodine. The activity of cholinesterase (ChE) in the brain was affected to some extent by high fluoride and low iodine but was especially affected by high fluoride and low iodine together."

2004 - Bouaziz et al. investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid hormones and bone in suckling mice and find a reduction of plasma free T4 and T3 levels in the offspring, as well as accelerated bone resorption activity. (Bone formation is regulated by the endocrine system.)

2005 - Dr. Susheela and co-workers present not only the first reports on TSH and free TH levels in children and adolescents with DF but, in addition, show that even in children without DF - but elevated fluoride serum levels - abnormal TH metabolism is present, as previously observed in workers exposed to fluoride, as well as children and adults with various amounts of fluoride in the water supply.

2005 - Ruiz-Payan et al. show that even at 1 ppm (fluoride in water) T3 levels are reduced in adolescents living in Northern Mexico.

2005 - Russian researchers investigate iodine deficiency in areas polluted with fluoride from air:

  • "The excess intake of fluorine was shown to increase the incidence of thyroid diseases and to lower anthropometric indices in children. The preventive measures performed to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders under intensive ambient air pollution with fluorine compounds were found to be insufficiently effective."

2007 through 2013 - The PFPC discovers over 160 studies in the Chinese literature detailing the disrupting effects of fluoride on thyroid hormone metabolism, including studies on animals (rats, mice, sheep, chicks, goats,
cattle) and humans (children and adults).

Please see:


2009 - Isaac et al. (India) find dental fluorosis together with thyroid
enlargement. (See also: Aravind et al, 2011)

2011 - Basha et al. (India) conduct studies on thyroid hormone levels and learning memory in rats, and find that fluoride reduces T4 and T3 levels, and causes generational and cumulative effects on the development of the offspring.

2011 - Karademir et al. (Turkey) report reduced T4 levels in children with dental fluorosis.

2011 - Aravind et al. (India) find that children with mild/moderate dental fluorosis also suffer more from thyroid enlargement.

    "This difference in prevalence of thyroid enlargement among those with dental fluorosis and without dental fluorosis was found to be statistically significant."

2012 - Selim et al. (Egypt) conduct studies in rats and find that long-term low-level exposure to fluoride cause hypothyroidism

2013 - Shashi & Singla (India) show a direct correlation between serum F and rT3 in fluorosis patients. (As was shown by Lin Fa-Fu et al. in Chinese children in 1991 and 1992.) The authors also suggest rT3 levels as a marker for chronic fluoride poisoning, as did Lin Fa-Fu et al in 1992.

    "It is also evidenced that fluoride in excess may be inducing disease normally attributed to iodine deficiency."

2013 - Kuzutlan et al. (Turkey) find dental fluorosis and thyroid enlargement significantly correlated in post-pubertal children.



Ahn CS, Rosenberg IN - "Iodine metabolism in thyroid slices - effects of TSH, dibutyril cyclic 3',5'-AMP, NaF and prostaglandin E1" Endocrinology 86(2):396-405 (1970)

Aliev Yu M - "Some biogeochemical characteristics of the environment in Azerbaijan, USSR" Gig Sanit (8):103-104 (1976)

Anbar M, Guttman S, Lewitus Z -" Effect of monofluorosulphanate, difluorophosphate, and F borate ions on the iodine uptake of the thyroid gland" Nature 183:1517 (1959)

Anbar M, Guttman S, Lewitus Z- "The accumulation of fluoroborate ions in thyroid glands of rats" Endocrinology 66:888 (1960)
(-> fluoroborate concentrates in thyroid gland, inhibits iodide transport)

Anon - "The specific features of the development of iodine deficiencies in children living under environmental pollution with fluorine compounds" Gig Sanit (6):53-5 (2005)

Arvind BA - "To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of M S Ramaiah Medical College" Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M. D. (Community Medicine) under the guidance of Dr. PRUTHVISH. S  

Arvind BA, Isaac A, Murthy NS, Somanna SN et al - "Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of a medical college" Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2(6): 465-469 (2012)

Aisawa M - "Uber den Einfluss des Bypophysenvorderlappens auf die Gewebsatmung, speziell uber die Beeinflussbarkeit dieses Einflusses durch verschiedene Pharmaca. V. Mitteilung. Uber den Einfluss von Acidum 

Bachinskii PP, Gutsalenko OA, Naryzhniuk ND, Sidora VD, Shliakhta AI - "Action of the body fluorine of healthy persons and thyroidopathy patients on the function of hypophyseal-thyroid the system" Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 31(6):25-9 (1985)
(-> reduced T3, increased TSH and I131 uptake)

Balabolkin MI, Mikhailets ND, Lobovskaia RN, Chernousova NV - "The interrelationship of the thyroid and immune statuses of workers with long-term fluorine exposure" Ter Arkh 67(1):41-2(1995)

Basha PM, Rai P, Begum S - "Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment" Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1-3):1083-94 (2011)  

Bech K, Madsen SN - "Human thyroid adenylate cyclase in non-toxic goitre: sensitivity to TSH, fluoride and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 8(6):457-66 (1978)

Benagiano A, Fiorentini S -"Richerche sperimentali e cliniche sui rapporrti tra fluore e tirodi" Annali di Stomatol 4:3-16 (1955)

Bixler D, Muhler JC, Shafer WG - "The effect of radioactive iodine on dental caries in the rat" J Am Dental Assoc 53:667-71 (1956) (Administration of desiccated thyroid significantly reduced caries, being as effective as NaF)

Bobek S, Kahl S, Ewy Z - "Effect Of Long Term Fluoride Administration on Thyroid Hormone Levels In Rats" Endocrinol Exp (Bratisl)10:289-295 (1976)

Bouaziz H, Ammar E, Ghorbel H, Ketata S, Jamoussi K, Ayadi F, Guermazi F, Zeghal N - "Effect of fluoride ingested by lactating mice on thyroid function and bone maturation of their suckling pups" Fluoride 37(2):133-142 (2004)

Brtko J, Knopp J, Baker ME - "Inhibition of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine binding to its receptor in rat liver by protease inhibitors and substrates" Mol Cell Endocrinol 93(1):81-6 (1993)

Burgi H, Siebenhuner L, Miloni E - "Fluorine and thyroid gland function: a 
review of the literature" Klin Wochenschr 62(12):564-9 (1984)

Burke G - "Comparison of thyrotropin and sodium fluoride effects on thyroid adenyl cyclase" Endocrinology 86(2):346-52 (1970)

Casterra H - "Erfahrungen mit einem neuen organischen Fluorpräparat bei Hyperthyreosen" Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen 2(22):704-705 (1947)
(describes use of Knoll's "K 17" - later named Capacin - in successful treatment of over 500 hyperthyroid patients. K 17 => 3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)

Chang CY, Phillips PH, Hart EB, Bostedt G - J Dairy Sci 17:695 (1934)

Cheng RG, Reid E - "Balance experiments on albino rats with fluorspar"
Chinese J Physiol 12:223-31 (1937) 

Cristiani H - "Alteration de la glande thyroide dans l'intoxication fluoree" Compt Rend Soc Biol 103:554-556 (1930)

Clark OH, Gerend PL - "Thyrotropin regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in human thyroid neoplasms" Surgery 97(5):539-46 (1985)

Cristiani H - "Alteration de la glande thyroide dans l'intoxication fluoree" Compt Rend Soc Biol 103:554-556 (1930)

Day TK, Powell-Jackson PR - "Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goitre" Lancet 1:1135-1138 (1972)

DeEds F, Wilson RH, Cutting WC - "Thyrotropic hormone and fluorine activity" Endocrinology 26(6):1053-1056 (1940)

DeEds F - "Insecticides, pest control, agents and spray residues in relation to the public health: fluorine toxicity" Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association, University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, and San Francisco, July 24th to August 12th, 1939 , Page 178 - 183

DeEds F - "Factors in the etiology of mottled enamel" J Am Dental Assoc 28:1804-14 (1941)

Delemer B, Dib K, Saunier B, Haye B, Jacquemin C, Correze C - "Alteration of the functional activity of Gs protein in thyrotropin-desensitized pig thyroid cells" Mol Cell Endocrinol 75(2):123-31 (1991)

Desai VK, Solanki DM, Bansal RK - "Epidemiological study of goitre in endemic fluorosis district of Gujarat" Fluoride 26(3):187-190 (1993)

Desai VK, Saxena DK, Bharsar BS, Kantharia SL - "Health survey of residents of villages surrounding fluoride mines in relation to their drinking water fluoride level" Abstracts, 13th Conference ISFR, New Delhi (1983)

Diester HE, Greenwood DA, Nelson VE - "Pathologic and physiologic studies on dogs receiving fluorine in doses comparable to those encountered in some water supplies" North Am Veterinarian 17(10):38-43 (1936)

Durham HE - "The prevalence of thyroid enlargement in and about Hereford" Journal of Hygiene 19(4):394-401 (1921)

Euler H, Eichler - "Ueber die Wirkung von Fluor in organischer Binding auf das Zahnsystem der Ratte" Arch exper Path 199:179-187 (1942); also Dtsch Zahn Hk 9(1) (1942)

Euler H, Eichler O, Hindemith H - "Über die Wirkung einiger organischer Fluoride bei chronischer Darreichung" Arch exp. Path u Pharmakol. Bd.206:75-82 (1949), also cited in: Steyn DG - The problem of dental caries and the fluoridation of public water supplies - Johannisburg (1958)
(All organic fluoride compounds inhibit thyroid function, all compounds act on glycogen/liver - activity only differentiated by amplitude)

Ferguson JKW, Sellers EA - "The effects of iodides and other halides given with thiouracil" J Pharmacal Exptl Therap 97(2):177-81 (1949)

Galeazzi M - "Il fluoro in natura come agente morbigeno, Nota III . Un focolaio di fluorosi umana a Campagnano di Roma" Rend 1st Super Sanita 10:739-60 (1947)

Galletti PM, Joyet G - "Effect of fluoride on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism" J Clin Endocrinol 18:1102-1110 (1958)

Gautier - Bull Soc Chim 13:909 (1913), cited in: Kraft K -"Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors I.Über den Antagonismus zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin." Hoppe-Seglers Z.Physiol. Chem 245:58 -65 (1937)

Gautier - Bull Soc Chim 14:241 (1914); cited in: Kraft K -"Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors I.Über den Antagonismus zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin." Hoppe-Seglers Z.Physiol. Chem 245:58 -65 (1937)

Gedalia I, Brand N - "The relationship of fluoride and iodine in drinking water in the occurrence of goiter" Arch Int Pharmacodyn 142:312-5 (1963)

Goldemberg L - "Probable patogenia del bocio endemico. Accion de los fluoruros en pequenas dosis repetidas sobre el crecimianto y la temperatura animal. (THE PROBABLE PATHOGENESIS OF ENDEMIC GOITER. THE ACTION OF FLUORIDES IN

Goldemberg L - "Goitre experimental par le fluor" (EXPERIMENTAL GOITER PRODUCED BY FLUORINE) La Semana Med 28:628-32 (1921)

Goldemberg L -"Action physiologique des fluorures" Compt Rend Soc Physiol
(Paris) 95:1169 (1926)

Goldemberg L - La Semana Med 28:628 (1921) - also cited in Wilson RH, DeEds F - "The Synergistic Action Of Thyroid On Fluoride Toxicity" Endocrinology 26:851 (1940)

Goldemberg L - Compt Rend Soc Biol (Paris) 104:1031 (1930)

Goldemberg L - "Tratamiento de la enfermedad de Basedow y del hipertiroidismo por el fluor" (TREATMENT OF BASEDOW 'S DISEASE AND OF HYPERTENSION
WITH FLUORINE) Prensa Med Arg 17:690-700 (1930) Rev Soc Med Int Soc Tisiol 6:217-42 (1930)

Goldemberg L - "Treatment of exophtalmic goiter and hyperthyroidism by intravenous injections of sodium fluoride" Semana Med 11:1833-1837 (1931)

Goldemberg L - Revista de Especialidad, T.V. No.6 (1930)

Goldemberg L - J Physiol et Path 25:1 (1927)

Goldemberg, Pighini, Parhou & Goldstein - La glande thyr, in: Lehrbuch der endokrin. Erkrankungen, Vol. 1, Genf, Ed. Christiani (1923)

Goldemberg L - "Traitement de la maladie de Basedow et de 'hyperthyroidisme par le fluor" Presse Méd 102:1751 (1930)

Goldemberg L, Maggi H - "Episodio agudo gravisimo de tirotoxicosis en una enferma de Basedow, curado con las inyecciones intravenosas de fluoruro de sodio" Prensa Med Arg 18:169-170 (1931), Rev Soc Med Int Soc Tisiol 7:289-292 (1931)

Goldemberg L - "Comment agiraient-ils therapeutiquement les fluorures dans le goitre exophtalmique et dans l'hyperthyroidisme? Technique actuelle du traitement fluorique" Semana Md 1:659-665 (1932)

Goldemberg L - J Physiol et Path 25:1 (1927); 26 (1928)

Goldemberg L - "Comment agiraient-ils therapeutiquement les fluoers dans le goitre exopthalmique et dans l'hyperthyroidisme" Semana Med 39:1659 (1932)

Goldemberg L - "La fluorterapia por via endovenosa produce el descanso y la normalizacion de la eritrosedimentacion acelerada de los hipertiroideos,

Goldemberg L - "Treatment of cardiac insufficiency in basedow’s disease with intravenous injections of sodium fluoride" Bull Acad Med 119:39-45 (1938)

Goldemberg & Schraiber - Revista de la Soc Argentin de Biol: Vol. XI(1)(1935); Vol XI (2) (1935); Vol. XI (7) (1935)

Goldemberg L - "Five years of treatment of hyperthyroidism with fluoride" Semana Med (Buenos Aires) 11:1273-9 (1934) (C.A. 29:511,1935)

Goldemberg L - "Results obtained in foreign countries with the treatment of exopthalmic goiter with fluorine" La Semana Med(Buenos Aires) II:2106 (1933)

Gordonoff T (Ed) - "Fluor und die Schilddrüse", Toxikology des Fluors (Toxicology of fluorine) Symposium, Ber, Oct.15-17 1962, Schwabe Verlag, Basel/Stuttgart, pp.111-123 (1964)

Gordonoff T, Minder W - "Fluoride and the thyroid gland" in "World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics" Pitman Medical Co, Vol 2:234-247 (1960)

Gordonoff T, Minder W - "Caries prophylaxis with fluorine as a physiological problem" Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 82:972-973 (1952)

Gordonoff T - "Zum Fluorproblem" Osterr Z Stomatol 54:561:571 (1957)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - Arch f. exper.Path 165 (1932)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - "Die Beinflussung des Stoffwechsels durch die Halogenwasserstoffsäuren im Tierexperiment, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Fluorwasserstoffsäure" Arch Exp Pathol 165:443- 461 (1932)
(describes his 1500 investigations on fluoride use in inhibition of metamorphosis in tadpoles, mice experiments, etc., many pictures)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - "Ein neuer Weg zur Behandlung der Thyreotoxikose mit Fluorwasserstoffsäure" Med Klin 21:717-719 (1932)
(reports on the first successful use of baths containing HF in the treatment of hyperthyroidism)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - Wien Klin Wschr 48 (1933)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - Med. Klin.47:911 (1952), cited in Gorlitzer von Mundy, V - "Einfluss von Fluor und Jod auf den Stoffwechsel, insbesondere auf die Schilddrüse" Münch Med Wochensschr 105:182-186 (1963)

Gorlitzer von Mundy, V - "Einfluss von Fluor und Jod auf den Stoffwechsel, insbesondere auf die Schilddrüse" Münch Med Wochensschr 105:182-186 (1963); also in Gordonoff, T. - Fluor und die Schilddrüse, Toxikology des Fluors Basel/Stuttgart, pp.111-123 (1964)

Gorlitzer von Mundy V - J. Path gen 25:1 (1927) (3 mg NaF- fluoride intake in rabbits and rats results in goiter and cretinism-like conditions)

Guan ZZ, Zhuang ZJ, Yang PS, Pan S - "Synergistic action of iodine-deficiency and fluorine-intoxication on rat thyroid" Chin Med J (Engl) 101(9):679-84 (1988)

Guercio F, Cazzola D - "Ricerche sul meccanismo d'azione di alcuni ormoni preipofisari: Influenza di alcuni veleni (acido monoiodoacetico, fluoruro sodico, ecc.) e della pancreasectomia sugli ormoni gonadotropi e tireotropi" (THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SOME HYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES: INFLUENCE OF SEVERAL POISONS (MONOIODOACETIC ACID, SODIUM FLUORIDE, ETC.) AND OF PANCREATECTOMY ON THE GONADOTROPIC AND THYROTROPIC HORMONES.) Arch Sci Biol (Bologna) 27:405-26 (1941)

Guercio F, Cazzola D - "Ricerche sul meccanismo d'azione di alcuni ormoni preipofisari. Possibile esistenza di un rapporto tra l'ormone gonadotrope e il metabolismo degli idrati di carbonio. (THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SOME HYPOPHYSEAl HORMONES: POSSIBLE EXISTENCE OF A RELATION BETWEEN 

Gupta SK, Khan TI, Gupta RC, Gupta AB, Gupta KC, Jain P, Gupta A - “Compensatory hyperparathyroidism following high fluoride ingestion - a clinico - biochemical correlation“ Indian Pediatr 38(2):139-46 (2001)

Hansen K - "Effects of Fluoridated Water on Tissues of CSE Female Mice" Bios 49(2):51-55 (1978)

Hatfield JD, Shrewsbury CL, Andrews FN, Doyle LP - "Iodine-fluorine relationship in sheep nutrition" J Anim Sci 3:71-77 (1944)

Hatfield JD, Shrewsbury CL, Doyle LP - "The values of rock phosphate as supplement for sheep" J Animal Sci 1:59 (1942)

Hillman D, Bolenbaugh DL, Convey EM - "Hypothyroidism and anemia related to fluoride in dairy cattle" J Dairy Sci 62(3):416-23 (1979)

Hosoi T, Okura E - "Fluorwasserstoff-Badekur und innere Anwendung von Borax bei Basedowscher Krankheit und Hyperthyreoidismus" [in Japanese]
Journal of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine 22(1):754-760 (1938)

Inouye Y, Yamaga T, Simizu K, Otani K - " Therapeutische Anwendung der Fluorwasserstoff-lontophorese bei der Basedowkrankheit und Hypertonia" Japan J Med Sci VIII, Internal Med Pediat Psychiat 5 Proc 104-108 (1938)

Isaac A, Delphine W, Silvia CR, Somanna SN, Mysorekar V, Narayana K, et al. - "Prevalence and manifestations of water-born fluorosis among school children in Kaiwara village of India: a preliminary study" Asian Biomed 3:1-4 (2009)

Jonderko G, Kita K, Pietrzak J, Primus-Slowinska B, Ruranska B, Zylka-Wloszczyk M, Straszecka J - "Effect of subchronic sodium fluoride poisoning on the thyroid gland of rabbits with normal and increased supply of iodine" Endokrynol Pol 34
(3):195-203 (1983)

Jentzer A -"Action du fluor sur le relais thyroidenhypophysaire demontree par l'iode 131" Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss 10:211-220 (1954)
(Less than normal amounts of thyroid hormone are deposited in the pituitary gland when rabbits are given fluoride in water at levels corresponding to that of artificially fluoridated water)

Jentzer A - "Effet du fluor et du fluor-iod sur la teneur en iode de la thyroide de lapin" Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss 15:412-422 (1959).
(In rabbits fed 0.05mg F- per day [!] iodine content in thyroid was reduced by 25%. Also showed that the iodine uptake in the pituitary gland was greatly reduced under the influence of fluoride)

Jentzer A - "Action du fluor sur le relais thyroldien-hypophysaire demontree par l'iode 131" Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss 10:211-20 (1954)
(0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg NaF/day also produced thyroids of little activity, but the follicles were large, full of dense colloids. 0.025 mg. injected into young rabbits caused the thyroid to remain in infantile state.)

Jooste PL, Weight MJ, Kriek JA, Louw AJ - “Endemic goitre in the absence of iodine deficiency in
schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South
Africa” Eur J Clin Nutr 53(1):8-12 (1999)

Kalderon AE, Sheth V - "Secretion and adenylate cyclase in thyroid nodules" Arch Pathol Lab Med 102(7):381-86 (1978)

Karademir S, Akcam M, Kuybulu AE, Olgar S, Oktem F - "Effects of fluorosis on QT dispersion, heart rate variability and echocardiographic parameters in children" Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 11(2):150-5 (2011)

Kraft K - "Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors I. Über den Antagonismus zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin." Hoppe-Seglers Z.Physiol. Chem 245:58 -65 (1937)

Kraft K - "Über die Synthese einiger aromatischer Fluorverbindungen" Knoll Research, Chem Ber. 84(2):150-156 (1951)
(describes manufacturing processes of numerous organic fluorides, after it was shown that all organic fluoride compounds displayed stronger anti-thyroid activity than the fluoride ion)

Kraft K, Dengel F - "Über die Synthese einiger aromatischer Fluorverbindungen, II. Mitteilung" Chem Ber 85(6):577-582 (1952)
(more reports on fluorophenyl/organic fluoride investigations..."in regards to their characteristics in lowering BMR...")

Kraft K, May R - "Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors. II. Fluorbestimmungen an Blut und Waessern" Z Physiol Chem. 246:233-43 (1937)

Kutlucan A, Kale Koroglu B, Numan Tamer M, Aydin Y, Baltaci D, Akdogan M, Ozturk M, Vural H, Ermis F - "The investigation of effects of fluorosis on thyroid volume in school-age children" Med Glas (Zenica) 10(1):93-98 (2013)

Lin Fa-Fu, Aihaiti, Zhao Hong-Xin, Lin Jin, Jiang Ji-Yong, Maimaiti, and Aiken - "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang" ICCIDD Newsletter, Volume 7 Number 3 August (1991)
Study Link 2 English
Study Link 3 English

Lin Fa-Fu - "A Study on the Relationship between Serum rT3 and Environmental Iodine or Fluoride Levels" Endem Dis Bull 7(2):68-70 (1992)

Litzka G - "Die experimentellen Grundlagen der Behandlung des Morbus Basedow und der Hyperthyreose mittels Fluortyrosin" Med Wochenschr 63:1037-1040 (1937)
(discusses the basis of the use of fluorides in anti-thyroid medication, documents activity on liver, skeletal muscle, inhibition of glycolysis, etc.)

Litzka G - "Erfolgskontrolle bei Behandlung der Schilddrüsenüberfunktion" Z. klin. Med.131:791-799 (1937)

Litzka G - "Die antithyreotoxische Wirkung des Fluortyrosins" Arch. exp. Pathol. u. Pharmakol. 183:436-458 (1936)

Litzka G - "Fluortyrosine" Klin Wochenschr. 15:1568-1569 (1936)

Liu et al. - "The relationship between serum thyroid hormones and fluoride levels in endemic fluorosis" CMJ 7(4):216-218 (1988)

Macchia V, Mandato E, Carella C, Pisano G, Biscaglia G - "The adenylate cyclase-cyclic cAMP-phosphodiesterase system in pathological human thyroid" J Endocrinol Invest 1(4):337-45 (1978)

Maccioro - Ref. Zbl.68, p.515 (1932); also cited in Purjesz et al, 1934

Maccioro G - "La fluorterapia nel morbo di Flajani-Basedow“ Riforma Med 48:1436-46 (1932)

Mahmood Bhat GH - "Effect of fluoride ions on the thyroid glands of guinea pigs" JK Practitioner International 3(2): 94-6 (1996)

Maumené E -"Experiencé pour déterminer l'action des fluores sur l'economie animale" Compt Rend Acad Sci (Paris) 39:538-539 (1854)

May W, Schwarz B - "Die Basedow-Behandlung mit Fluor. Vorlaufige Mitteilung." Fortschr. Med 50:563-564 (1932)

May W - "Antagonismus zwischen Jod und Fluor im Organismus" Klin Wochenschr 14:790-792 (1935)

May W - "Behandlung the Hyperthyreosen einschliesslich des schweren genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor" Klin Wochenschr 16:562-564 (1937)

May W - "Eine neue interne Behandlung der Hyperthyreosen einschliesslich des Morbus Basedow" Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Innere Medizin, 49. Kongress, Wiesbaden March 15 - 18, 1937, publ. Munich (1937)

May W - "Die Basedowsche Krankheit" Aulendorf (1950)

May R - "Untersuchungen über den Fluorgehalt des Trinkwasseres in bayerischen Kropfgebieten verschiedener Endemiestärke" Z. Ges. Exp. Med 107:450 (1940)

May R - "Therapie mit organischen Fluorverbindungen" Med Wochenschr 4:489-490 (1950)

May Richard - "Erfahrungen in der Behandlung von Hyperthyreose- und Basedow-Kranken mit einer organischen Fluorverbindung (Fluoroxyphenylessigsäure, 'Capacin')" Deutsche Med. Wochenschr.74(12):374-375 (1949)
(reviews the highly successful use of organic fluoride compounds Pardinon and Capacin in treatment of hyperthyroidism - up to 1943 already over 10,000 patients treated...)

May Wilhelm - "Fluor als Therapeuticum" Arzneimittel Forschung 1:33-37 (1951)
(Review on fluoride as a therapeutic agent...discusses Goldemberg's 1926 use in treatment of whooping cough (-> Pertussin - G(i) proteins), Goldemberg's prioneering work in 1928 in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, etc..., discusses fluoroform as whooping cough (pertussis) medication, difluorophenyl compounds as wound-disinfectants such as "Epidermin", another fluorophenyl compound called "Fluor-rheumin" against rheumatism, etc.)

May H, Litzka G - "Über die Hemmung des Tumorwachstums durch Fluortyrosine" Z. Krebsforschung 48:376 - 382 (1939)

May W - "Eine neue interne Behandlung der Hyperthyreosen einschließlich des Morbus Basedow" Diskussionsvortrag, Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für innere Medizin, 49.Kongress, Wiesbaden, March 15-18, 1937, München(1937)

May W - "Die Behandlung der Hyperthyeosen mit Fluortyrosine" Deutsch Med Wochenschr 68:164 (1942)

May W, Schwartz E - Fortschr Med 28:9 (1932); also cited in: Kraft K -"Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors I. Über den Antagonismus zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin" Hoppe-Seglers Z.Physiol. Chem 245:58 -65 (1937)

McCarrison R - "Etiology of Endemic Goiter" Milroy Lectures, Bale, Daniellson, Ltd., London (1913)

McKay, FS - "Progress of the year in the investigation of mottled enamel with special reference to its association with artesian water" J Natl Dental Assn 5:721 (1918)

Mikhailets ND, Balabolkin MI, Rakitin VA, Danilov IP - "Thyroid function during prolonged exposure to fluorides." Problemy Endokrinologii 42 (1):6-9 (1996)

  • "Thyroid function was examined in 165 workers of electrolysis shops of aluminum production with more or less expressed signs of chronic fluoride intoxication (fluorosis) by radioimmunoassay of hormones and the test of 131I absorption by the thyroid. The detected thyroid abnormalities were characterized by a moderate reduction of iodine-absorbing function of the thyroid, low T3 with normal T4 level, and a slight increase of TTH concentration. These changes augmented with longer service and fluorosis progress. Hence, the syndrome of low T3 and reduced absorption of 131I may be considered as diagnostic signs of fluorosis. In case of toxic involvement of the liver in fluorosis
    patients, low T3 syndrome is observed much more frequently: in 75.6% cases. Liver abnormalities evidently lead to disorders in the peripheral conversion of T4 in T3, occurring primarily in liver parenchyma. Indirect effect of fluorine on the enzymatic system of deiodination cannot be ruled out as well."

Mizukami Y, Matsubara F, Matsukawa S - "Localization of adenylate cyclase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in human thyroid follicular cells" Histochemistry 74(1):9-19(1982)

Monti M, Hedner P, Ikomi-Kumm J, Valdemarsson S - "Erythrocyte metabolism in hyperthyroidism: a microcalorimetric study on changes in the Embden-Meyerhof and the hexose monophosphate pathways" Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 115(1):87-90(1987)

Muhler JC, Shafer WG - "Experimental dental caries, IV. The effects of feeding desiccated thyroid and thiouracil on dental caries in rats" Science 119:687-9 (1954)
("The results indicate that the activity of the thyroid is related to the incidence of dental caries, and that a synergism exists between the activity of F and the thyroid gland.")

Narbutt B, Romer TE, Grabski J, Szymik N - "Influence of natrium fluoride on the structure of the rat thyroid" Endocrynol Pol 22 (5):445-451 (1971)

Nasse O - "Beitraege zur Physiologie der contractilen Substanz" Pfluegers Archiv fuer Physiologie 2: 97-121 (1869)

Negoita S, Swamp L, Kelley B, Carpenter DO - "Chronic diseases surveillance of St. Regis Mohawk Health Service patients" J Public Health Manag Pract 7(1):84-91 (2001)

Orgiazzi J, Chopra IJ, Solomon DH, Williams DE - "Comparison of the effect of TSH and fluoride on the adenylate cyclase activity of cold thyroid
nodules" Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 37(2):107-8 (1976)

Orlowski W - "Sur la valeur therapeutique du sang animal du bore et du fluor dans la maladie de Basedow" La Presse Medicale 42:836-837 (1932)

Paloyan Walker R, Kazuko E, Gopalsami C, Bassali J, Lawrence AM, Paloyan E - "Hyperparathyroidism associated with a chronic hypothyroid state" Laryngoscope 1107(7):903-9 (1997)

Pastan I, Macchia V, Katzen R - "Effect of fluoride on metabolic activity of thyroid slices" Endocrinology 83(1):157-60 (1968)

Phillips PH, English HE, Hart EB - "The influence of sodium fluoride upon the basal metabolism of the rat under several experimental conditions" Am J Physiol 113:441-449 (1935)
[First evidence that fluoride mimicks TSH. Also, when 5.2mg of NaF (2.34 F-) was added to diet of rats fed desiccated thyroid, effects were dramatically potentiated, leading to rapid weight loss and death: F- and thyroid have synergistic effects...]

Phillips PH - "The basla metabolic rate of the white rat fed desiccated thyroid" Am Soc Animal Prod Rec Proc 28th Ann Meeting 240-1 (1935)

Phillips PH - "The manifestations of scurvy-like symptoms induced by ingestion of sodium fluoride"J Biol Chem 100:29 (1933)

Phillips PH - "Further studies on the effects of NaF administration upon the basal metabolic rate of experimental animals" Am J Physiol 117:155-159(1936)
(F- and thyroid have synergistic effects)

Phillips PH, Edens RJ - "Fluorgehalt d. Schilddrüse in Fällen von Hyperthyreoase" Madison Diskussion, Biblioth.d Forsch. Knoll (in May, 1950)

Phillips PH, Lamb AR -""Histology of certain organs and teeth in chronic toxicosis due to fluorine" Arch Path 17:169 (1934)

Phillips PH, English H, Hart NB -"The augmentation of fluorosis in the chick by feeding desiccated thyroid" J Nutrition 10:399 (1935), cited in:Harris NO, Hayes RL -"A tracer study of the effects of acute and chronic exposure to sodium fluoride on the thyroid iodine metabolism of rats" J Dent Res 34:470-477 (1955)
(F- and thyroid have synergistic effects)

Pighini G -"Il gozzo endemico e la sua etiologia in funzionie disfunzionitiroidee" Publicato per cura dell'Institute Sieroterapico, Milano p.41 (1923), also cited in Roholm K - "Fluoride Intoxication, London, C.K. Clarke and Co, (1937) (F- inhibits thyroid function/cause of goiter.)

Purjesz B, Berkessy L, Gönczi K, Kovacs-Oskolas M - "Über die biologische Speicherung der halogenen Elemente in Hühnereiern und im tierischen Organismus" Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 176:578-582 (1934)
(describes accumulation of fluoride in chicken eggs; gave such eggs to Basedow patients and achieved lowering of body temperature, pulse and BMR, as well as weight gain; found that most of the fluoride was found in liver; found NO fluoride in the blood of healthy people -> 1934)

Rabuteau - Paris, Bailliere (8):144 (1867)
(Available from Royal College of Surgeons, London, England) in: Durham (1921)

Raveno WS - "Fluorides as an aid to iodine in hyperthyroidism" J Mich State Med Soc 33:359-63 (1934)

Ren DL, Liu Y, An Q - "An investigation of intelligence development of children aged 8-14 years in high-fluoride and low-iodine areas." Chinese J of Control of Endemic Diseases 4:251-254 (1989)

Ritzel G - "Thyroxinstoffwechsel und Trinkwasser-fluoridierung" Int Z Vitaminforsch 34:422-426 (1964)

Reynolds Metals Corp vs. Paul Martin et al - Transcript of Record. US Court of Appeals, Ninth District, Nos.14990-14992 (1952) (Court case: Family of three residing near aluminum smelter in Troutdale, Oregon. Litigation of this case revealed muscular pains, general fatigue, arthritis in conjunction with liver and kidney damage, and hypothyroidism.)

Rodesch F, Neve, P, Willems C, Dumont JE - "Stimulation of thyroid metabolism by thyrotropin, cyclic 3',5'-AMP, dibutyryl cyclic 3',5'-AMP and prostaglandin E1" Eur J Biochem 8(1):26-32 (1969)

Ruiz-Payan A, Duarte-Gardea M, Ortiz M, Hurtado R - "Chronic effects of fluoride on growth, blood chemistry, and thyroid hormones in adolescents residing in three communities in Northern Mexico" Abstracts, XXVIth ISFR Conference, Wiesbaden, Germany, September 26-29, 2005

    SEE ALSO: Alma Ruiz-Payan, "Chronic effects of fluoride on growth, blood chemistry and thyroid hormones in adolescents residing in three communities in Northern Mexico" (January 1, 2006). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. Paper AAI3214004.  

    Dr Ruiz-Payan Alma et al. noted that adolescents in Samalayuca, Mexico, using water with 1 ppm of fluoride had a significant reduction in their T3  
    thyroid  hormone level to 132.9 ±26.8 ng/dL compared with those using water with 0.3  ppm in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where the level was 149.7 ±20.9 ng/dL.

Schutte J - "Fluorine therapy in hyperthyroidism and in some symphatheticotonic neuroses" Arch Med Interna Habana 1, No. 3 (1935)

Schwarz - Med. Klin. 5 (1941);cited in May, 1950

Selim AO, Abd El-Haleem MR, Ibrahim IH - "Effect of sodium fluoride on the thyroid gland of growing male albino rats: histological and biochemical study" Egyptian Journal of Histology 35(3): 470-482 (2012) 

Shashi A, Singla S - "Clinical and Biochemical Profile of Deiodinase Enzymes and Thyroid Function Hormones in Patients of Fluorosis" Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 7(4):100-107 (2013)

Shashi A, Singla S - "Syndrome of Low Triiodothyroinine in Chronic Fluorosis" International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences 3(1):152-160 (2013) 

Shen X, Zhang Z, Xu X - "Influence of combined iodine and fluoride on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats" Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 33(2):158-61 (2004)

Siddiqui AH - "Incidence of Simple Goiter in Areas of Endemic Fluorosis in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India" Fluoride 2(4):Pages 192 - 249 (1969)

Sidora VD, Shliakhta AI, Iugov VK, Kas'ianenko AS, Piatenko VG - "Indices of the pituitary-thyroid system in residents of cities with various fluorine concentrations in drinking water" Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 29(4):32-5 (1983)

Slaviero A - "Ricerche sperimentali sull' intossicazione da fluoro" (EXPERIMENTAL
STUDIES ON FLUORINE INTOXICATION) Arch Ist Biochim Ital. 6:285-310 (1934)

Speder E, Charnot A - "Syndromes osseux du type hyperparathyroldien et du type hypoparathyroidien provoques par l'intoxication par les divers sels de fluor et par des intoxications minerales associees" Maroc Med 17:405 (1937)

Spira L - "Fluorine-induced endocrine disturbances in mental illness" Folia Psychiat Neurol Jap 16:4-14 (1962) NLM CIT. ID: 62182027

Suketa Y - “Fundamental and applied studies on transport and metabolism of electrolytes and glucose--aim to contact with molecular biology” Yakugaku Zasshi 122(8):507-25 (2002)

Steyn DG - "Fluorine poisoning in man and animal" Paper read at the annual meeting of the South African Veterinary Medical Association held in October
1937, at Onderstepoort. Cape Times, 1938.

Steyn DG - "Water poisoning in man and animal, together with a discussion on urinary calculi" Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Animal Ind 12:167-230 (1939)

Steyn DG - "Fluoride and endemic goitre" S Afr Med J 22:525-526 (1948)

Steyn DG, Kieser J, Odendaal WA, Malherbe MA, Synan HW, Sunkel W, Naude
CP, Klintworth H, Fisher E - "Endemic goitre in the Union of South Africa and some neighbouring territories" Pretoria:Union of South Africa, Department of Nutrition (March 1955)

Steyn DG - "The problem of dental caries and the fluoridation of public water supplies" Johannisburg (1958)

Steyn DG - "Chronic fluorine poisoning caused by the drinking of subterranean waters containing excessive quantities of fluorine" in: Gordonoff, T. - Fluor und die Schilddrüse, Toxikology des Fluors Basel/Stuttgart (1964) 

Steyn DG - "Once More - Fluoridation" Review
Chief Research Officer, Division of Life Sciences, Atomic Energy Board, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, (Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria) University of Pretoria NUWE REEKS No.24 (1964)

Stolc V, Podoba J - "Effect of fluoride on the biogenesis of thyroid hormones" Nature 188:855-856 (1960)

Straub J, Kovacs E - "Fluor-jod antagonizmus" Nepegeszsegugy 37(6):162-4 (1956) ("The goiter-provoking effect of F only becomes apparent if the I provision is insufficient or its utilization disturbed")

Susheela AK, Bhatnagar M, Vig K, Mondal NK - "Excess fluoride ingestion and thyroid hormone derangements in children living in Delhi, India" Fluoride 38(2):98-108 (2005)

Svirbely JL - "The effects of diet and various substances on the Vitamin C content of some organs of the rat" Am J Physiol 116:446-55 (1936)

Swarup D, Dwivedi SK, Dey S, Ray SK - "Fluoride intoxication in bovines due to industrial pollution" Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68 (7):605-608 (1998), also in Fluoride 31(4):225(1998)

Tezelman S, Shaver JK, Grossman RF, Liang W, Siperstein AE, Duh QY, Clark OH - "Desensitization of adenylate cyclase in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor" Endocrinology 134(3):1561-9 (1994)
(Fluorides cause insensitization (decreased response) of the TSH receptor).

Toccafondi RS, Rotella CM, Tanini A, Fani P, Arcangeli P - "Thyrotrophin-responsive adenylate cyclase activity in thyroid toxic adenoma" Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 92(4):658-68 (1979)

Todd - Practioner 129:2 (1932), also cited in May, 1950

Tokar' VI, Voroshnin VV, Sherbakov SV - "Chronic effects of fluorides on the pituitary-thyroid system in industrial workers" Gig Tr Prof Zabol (9):19-22 (1989)

Tokar' VI, Savchenko ON - "Effect of inorganic fluorine compounds on the functional state of the pituitary-testis system" Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 23(4):104-7 (1977)

Travbesli M, Guermazi F, Zeghal N - "Effect of fluoride on thyroid function and cerebellar development in mice"
Fluoride 34(3):165-173 (2001)

Wadhwani TK -"Metabolism of Fluoride. Absorption, retention, distribution and elimination of fluorine and its effect on the Vitamin C content of different tissues, and on the iodine content of thyroids of rats and monkeys" J Indian Inst Sci (35) 354-362 (1953)
Fluoride concentrated in thyroid gland of rats consuming 0.9mg F- per day.

Wadhwani TK, Ramaswamy AS -"Pathological changes in the tissues of rats(albino) and monkeys (macara radiata) in fluorine toxicosis" J Indian Inst Sci 35:223-230 (1953)

Waldbott GL, Burgstahler AW, McKinney HL - "Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma" Coronado Press (1978)

Walinder O, Karlsson FA, Dahlberg PA - "Adenyl cyclase activity in human thyroid plasma membranes from normal human thyroid tissue and thyroid adenomas" Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 92(1):95-104 (1979)

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Wespi HJ - "Besteht ein Antagonismus zwischen Fluor und Jod?" Praxis 43:616-623 (1954)
(Wespi reports both dental fluorosis and goitre in the same patients in Campagnano di Roma and Casamicciola...)

Willems C, Van Sande J, Dumont JE- "Inhibition Of Thyroid Secretion By Sodium Fluoride (In Vitro)" Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 264:197-204 (1972)

Wilson RH, DeEds F -"The Synergistic Action Of Thyroid On Fluoride Toxicity" Endocrinology 26:851 (1940)

Wilson DC -"Fluorine in aetiology of endemic goitre" Lancet I:211-213 (1941)

Yang Y, Wang X, Guo X - "Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children's intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine" Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih 15(5):296-8 (1994)

Zhao W, Zhu H, Yu Z, Aoki K, Misumi J, Zhang X - "Long-term Effects of Various Iodine and Fluorine Doses on the Thyroid and Fluorosis in Mice" Endocr Regul 32(2):63-70 (1998)
Full Text

Zhao WY -"A preliminary study of the interaction of iodide and fluoride in experimental iodide-goiter and fluorosis" Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih 22(3):146-8 (1988)

Zor U, Kaneko T, Lowe IP, Bloom G, Field JB - "Effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prostaglandins on thyroid adenyl cyclaseactivation and cyclic adenosin 3'-5'-monophosphate." J Biol Chem 244(19):5189-95. (1969)



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