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Thyroid Hormones & Oxidative Stress

 

 

Thyroid Hormones & Oxidative Stress
© 2004 PFPC

Background:

Hundreds of papers have been published in recent years documenting the effects of fluoride on oxidative stress. Yet, not one of them has investigated the matter in relation to thyroid function which regulates the oxidant/antioxidant system – despite the fact that the effects of fluoride on thyroid hormone metabolism have been known for over 100 years.

Below is a partial list of 100+ recent studies documenting the controlling effects of thyroid status on the oxidant/antioxidant system in the entire body. Thousands are available.

Selected Studies on Thyroid Status and Oxidative Stress

Abalovich M, Llesuy S, Gutierrez S, Repetto M – “Peripheral parameters of oxidative stress in Graves’ disease: the effects of methimazole and 131 iodine treatments” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 59(3):321-7 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12919155

“Our results confirm the imbalance of the antioxidant/oxidant status in hyperthyroid patients.”


Adali M, Inal-Erden M, Akalin A, Efe B – “Effects of propylthiouracil, propranolol, and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in hyperthyroid patients” Clin Biochem 32(5):363-7 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10480451

Adamo AM, Llesuy SF, Pasquini JM, Boveris A – “Brain chemiluminescence and oxidative stress in hyperthyroid rats”  Biochem J 263(1):273-7 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2604697

“It is concluded that hyperthyroidism leads to hypermetabolism and oxidative stress in the brain.”


Albano CB, Muralikrishnan D, Ebadi M – “Distribution of coenzyme Q homologues in brain”  Neurochem Res 27(5):359-68 (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12064350

Allen T, Rana SV – “Oxidative stress by inorganic arsenic: modulation by thyroid hormones in rat” Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 135(2):157-62 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12860054

Aliciguzel Y, Ozdem SN, Ozdem SS, Karayalcin U, Siedlak SL, Perry G, Smith MA – “Erythrocyte, plasma, and serum antioxidant activities in untreated toxic multinodular goiter patients” Free Radic Biol Med 30(6):665-70 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11295364

“The findings show that untreated toxic multinodular goiter causes profound alterations in components of the antioxidant system in erythrocytes indicative of increased oxidative stress.”


Asayama K, Dobashi K, Hayashibe H, Megata Y, Kato K – “Lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in thyroid dysfunction in the rat: a possible mechanism of injury to heart and skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism” Endocrinology.  121(6):2112-8 (1987)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2824181

Bartalena L, Pinchera A – “Effects of thyroxine excess on peripheral organs” Acta Med Austriaca 21(2):60-5 (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7998484

Beckett GJ, Peterson FE, Choudhury K, Rae PW, Nicol F, Wu PS, Toft AD, Smith AF, Arthur JR – “Inter-relationships between selenium and thyroid hormone metabolism in the rat and man” J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 5(4):265-7 (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1822335

Beckett GJ, Nicol F, Proudfoot D, Dyson K, Loucaides G, Arthur JR – “The changes in hepatic enzyme expression caused by selenium deficiency and hypothyroidism in rats are produced by independent mechanisms” Biochem J 266(3):743-7 (1990)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2327962

Beckett GJ, Kellett HA, Gow SM, Hussey AJ, Hayes JD, Toft AD – “Raised plasma glutathione S-transferase values in hyperthyroidism and in hypothyroid patients receiving thyroxine replacement: evidence for hepatic damage” Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 291(6493):427-31 (1985)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3926229

Bednarek J, Wysocki H, Sowinski J – “Oxidation products and antioxidant markers in plasma of patients with Graves’ disease and toxic multinodular goiter: effect of methimazole treatment” Free Radic Res 38(6):659-64 (2004)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15346657

“These findings suggest that the changes in blood extracellular indices of oxidative stress and free radical scavenging in hyperthyroid patients are influenced by thyroid metabolic status, and are not directly dependent on autoimmune factors present in Graves’ disease.”


Bildik A, Belge F, Yur F, Alkan M, Kilidalp D – “The effect of hyperthyroidism on the levels of Na+K ATP+ASE, Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydropgenase and glutathione”  Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 57(2) (2002) http://www.isrvma.org/article/57_1_4.htm

Blennemann B, Moon YK, Freake HC – “Tissue-specific regulation of fatty acid synthesis by thyroid hormone”  130(2):637-43 (1992)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1733712

Bolzan AD, Brown OA, Goya RG, Bianchi MS – “Hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in young and old rats” Exp Gerontol 30(2):169-75 (1995)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8591810

“The Spearman’s test revealed a positive correlation between: 1) serum levels of TSH and the activity of SOD in liver and 2) serum levels of Prl and GH and the activity of SOD in mammary tissue of young and old animals (p < 0.05). Likewise, CAT in liver showed a highly significant correlation with serum TSH (but not T4 and T3) levels in young (p < 0.01) but not in old rats…TSH can possibly influence the activity of both CAT and SOD in liver via a thyroid-independent pathway.”


Brzezinska-Slebodzinska E – “Influence of hypothyroidism on lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte resistance and antioxidant plasma properties in rabbits” Acta Vet Hung 51(3):343-51 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14516162

Chattopadhyay S, Zaidi G, Das K, Chainy GB – “Effects of hypothyroidism induced by 6-n-propylthiouracil and its reversal by T3 on rat heart superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation.”  Indian J Exp Biol 41(8):846-9 (2003)

“The results suggest that the antioxidant defence status of cardiac tissue is well modulated by thyroid hormone.”


Chehade J, Kim J, Pinnas JL, Mooradian AD – “Malondialdehyde binding of rat cerebral proteins is reduced in experimental hypothyroidism”  Brain Res 829(1-2):201-3 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10350550

“These changes did not correlate with cerebral tissue or plasma MDA concentration. It is concluded that hypothyroidism in rats is associated with significant decrease in MDA-bound proteins.”


Chehade J, Kim J, Pinnas JL, Mooradian AD – “Age-related changes in the thyroid hormone effects on malondialdehyde-modified proteins in the rat heart” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 222(1):59-64 (1999) FULL TEXT
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10510246

“We conclude that alterations in MDA protein content is yet another potential biochemical effect of TH in cardiac tissue.”


Choudhury S, Chainy GB, Mishro MM – “Experimentally induced hypo- and hyper-thyroidism influence on the antioxidant defence system in adult rat testis.”  Andrologia 35(3):131-40 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12780529

“The results of the present study suggest that any alteration in the thyroid hormone level in the body affects the antioxidant defence system of testis of adult rats and, thereby, may affect the physiology of testis through oxidative stress.”


Cimino JA, Noto RA, Fusco CL, Cooperman JM – “Riboflavin metabolism in the hypothyroid newborn” Am J Clin Nutr 47(3):481-3 (1988)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3348160

Cimino JA, Jhangiani S, Schwartz E, Cooperman JM – “Riboflavin metabolism in the hypothyroid  human adult”  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 184(2):151-3 (1987) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3809170

Cornatzer WE, Hoffman DR, Haning JA – “The effect of hyper and hypothyroidism, hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy on phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase, phosphatidyldimethyl-ethanolamine methyltransferase and choline phosphotransferase of rat liver microsomes” Int J Biochem.  1984;16(5):567-70 (1984)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6327418

Danis IuK, Marchiulenite DIu, Danite EIu, Cherniauskene RCh – “Vitamin E and malondialdehyde in the blood serum of thyrotoxicosis patients” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 36(5):21-4 (1990)

Das K, Chainy GB – “Thyroid hormone influences antioxidant defense system in adult rat brain”  Neurochem Res 29(9):1755-66 (2004)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15453272

“Results of the current investigation suggest that antioxidant defense parameters of adult rat brain are considerably influenced by thyroid states of the body.”


Das K, Chainy GB – “Modulation of rat liver mitochondrial antioxidant defence system by thyroid hormone” Biochim Biophys Acta 1537(1):1-13 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11476958

“The results of the present study suggest that the mitochondrial antioxidant defence system is considerably influenced by the thyroid states of the body.”


DeLuise M, Flier JS – “Status of the red cell Na, K-pump in hyper and hypothyroidism” Metabolism 32: 25-30 (1983)

Doulas NL, Constantopoulos A, Litsios B- “Effect of ascorbic acid on guinea pig adrenal adenylate cyclase activity and plasma cortisol“ J Nutr  117(6):1108-14 (1987)

Dumitriu L, Bartoc R, Ursu H, Purice M, Ionescu V – “Significance of high levels of serum malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) and ceruloplasmin (CP) in hyper- and hypothyroidism” Endocrinologie 26(1):35-8 (1988)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3387887

Faas FH, Carter WJ – “Fatty acid desaturation and microsomal lipid fatty acid composition in experimental hypothyroidism” Biochem J 207(1):29-35 (1982)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7181859

Fernandez V, Videla LA – “Hepatic glutathione biosynthetic capacity in hyperthyroid rats” Toxicol Lett 89(2):85-9 (1996)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8960149

Fernandez V, Simizu K, Barros SB, Azzalis LA, Pimentel R, Junqueira VB, Videla LA – ““Effects of hyperthyroidism on rat liver glutathione metabolism: related enzymes’ activities, efflux, and turnover” Endocrinology 129(1):85-91 (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1675989

Giacobino JP, Moinat M, Muzzin P, Siegrist-Kaiser CA, Seydoux J, Girardier L – “Peroxisomal oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue depends on the thyroid status” Mol Cell Endocrinol 61(2):217-25 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2917686

Giray B, Hincal F – “Oxidative DNA base damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and selenium status in highly iodine-deficient goitrous children”  Free Radic Res 36(1):55-62 (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11999703

Giray B, Riondel J, Richard MJ, Favier A, Hncal F – “Oxidant/Antioxidant status in relation to thyroid hormone metabolism in selenium- and/or iodine-deficient rats” Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 17(2):109-121 (2004)
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/108068586/ABSTRACT

Giray B, Hincal F, Tezic T, Okten A, Gedik Y – “Status of selenium and antioxidant enzymes of goitrous children is lower than healthy controls and nongoitrous children with high iodine deficiency” Biol Trace Elem Res 82(1-3):35-52 (2001)

Giordano N, Santacroce C, Mattii G, Geraci S, Amendola A, Gennari C – “Hyperuricemia and gout in thyroid endocrine disorders” Clin Exp Rheumatol 19(6):661-5 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11791637

Gow SM, Caldwell G, Toft AD, Sweeting VM, Beckett GJ – “Restoration of normal thyrotrophin secretion reduces the abnormally high serum glutathione S-transferase levels found in patients receiving thyroxine replacement therapy” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 29(3):249-56 (1988)

Gredilla R, Barja G, Lopez-Torres M – “Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative damage on lipids, glutathione and DNA in the mouse heart”  Free Radic Res 35(4):417-25 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11697138

Gredilla R, Lopez Torres M, Portero-Otin M, Pamplona R, Barja G – “Influence of hyper- and hypothyroidism on lipid peroxidation, unsaturation of phospholipids, glutathione system and oxidative damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in mice skeletal muscle” Mol Cell Biochem 221(1-2):41-8 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11506185

Guerrero A, Pamplona R, Portero-Otin M, Barja G, Lopez-Torres M – “Effect of thyroid status on lipid composition and peroxidation in the mouse liver”  Free Radic Biol Med 26(1-2):73-80 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9890642

Gupta P, Kar A – “Role of ascorbic acid in cadmium-induced thyroid dysfunction and lipid peroxidation”  J Appl Toxicol 18(5):317-20 (1998)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9804431

Han Bo, Manyu L, Yan S – “Studies on the toxicology
of endemic fluorosis in cattle” abstracts XXII World
Buiatrics Congress, Hannover, Germany 18-23 (August 2002)

Hermansky SJ, Mohammadpour HA, Murray WJ, Stohs SJ – “Effect of thyroidectomy on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced lipid peroxidation” Pharmacology 35(6):301-7 (1987)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3432353

Kang BP, Bansal MP, Mehta U – “Hyperlipidemia and type I 5′-monodeiodinase activity: regulation by selenium supplementation in rabbits” Biol Trace Elem Res 77(3):231-9 (2000)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11204465

“The 5′-DI activity in the thyroid showed an opposite trend in comparison with peripheral tissues (i.e., liver). The important finding of this study is that in the hyperlipidemic state, deiodinase in the thyroid behaves in a different manner as compared to its activity in extrathyroidal tissues.”


Komosinska-Vassev K, Olczyk K, Kucharz EJ, Marcisz C, Winsz-Szczotka K, Kotulska A – “Free radical activity and antioxidant defense mechanisms in patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease during therapy” Clin Chim Acta 300(1-2):107-17 (2000)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10958867

Konukoglu D, Yelke HK, Hatemi H, Sabuncu T – “Effects of oxidative stress on the erythrocyte Na+,K+ ATPase activity in female hyperthyroid patients” J Toxicol Environ Health A 63(4):289-95 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1143706

Kozlov AV, Marzoev AI, Andriushchenko AP, Vladimirov IuA, Azizova OA – “Thyroid hormones and the level of divalent iron ions in the rabbit liver” Biofizika 29(5):806-8 (1984)

Krasowska A, Wlostowski T “The effect of high fluoride intake on tissue trace elements and histology of testicular tubules in the rat” Comp Biochem Physiol C 103(1):31-4 (1992)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1360374

Krishnamurthy S, Prasanna D – “Serum vitamin E and lipid peroxides in malnutrition, hyper and hypothyroidism” Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 6(1):17-21 (1984)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6431767

Landriscina C, Petragallo V, Morini P, Marcotrigiano GO – “Lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. I. Stimulation of the NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase-dependent process in hyperthyroid state” Biochem Int 17(2):385-93 (1988)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3142479

Lyman EM, Dove JL, Sribney M – “Effect of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin synthesis in chick liver microsomes”  Can J Biochem 54(1):15-21 (1976)

Maddaiah VT – “Glutathione correlates with lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria of triiodothyronine-injected hypophysectomized rats” FASEB J 4(5):1513-8 (1990)

Mancini A, De Marinis L, Calabro F, Sciuto R, Oradei A, Lippa S, Sandric S, Littarru GP, Barbarino A – “Evaluation of metabolic status in amiodarone-induced thyroid disorders: plasma coenzyme Q10 determination” J Endocrinol Invest 12(8):511-6 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2592737

Mano T, Sinohara R, Sawai Y, Oda N, Nishida Y, Mokumo T, Asano K, Ito Y, Kotake M, Hamada M, et al – “Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in the brain of hyper-and hypothyroid aged rats” J Endocrinol 147(2):361-5 (1995)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7490566

“These findings suggest that free radicals and lipid peroxides are scavenged to compensate for the changes induced by hyper- or hypothyroidism.”


Mano T, Sinohara R, Sawai Y, Oda N, Nishida Y, Mokuno T, Kotake M, Hamada M, Masunaga R, Nakai A, et al. – “Effects of thyroid hormone on coenzyme Q and other free radical scavengers in rat heart muscle” J Endocrinol 145(1):131-6 (1995)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7798018

Martensson J, Goodwin CW, Blake R – “Mitochondrial glutathione in hypermetabolic rats following burn injury and thyroid hormone administration: evidence of a selective effect on brain glutathione by burn injury” Metabolism 41(3):273-7 (1992)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1542266

Marzoev AI, Kozlov AV, Vladimirov IuA – “Decrease of lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria isolated from rabbits with hypothyroidism” Biull Eksp Biol Med 93(3):40-2 (1982)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7093480

“This is accounted for by the decreased rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mitochondria, caused by the deficiency of thyroid hormones in the body.”


Mayer L, Romic Z, Skreb F, Bacic-Vrca V, Cepelak I, Zanic-Grubisic T, Kirin M – “Antioxidants in patients with hyperthyroidism” Clin Chem Lab Med 42(2):154-8 (2004)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15061353

Mehrotra K, Morgenstern R, Lundqvist G, Becedas L, Bengtsson Ahlberg M, Georgellis A – “Effects of peroxisome proliferators and/or hypothyroidism on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat testis” Chem Biol Interact 104(2-3):131-45 (1997)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9212780
(PFOA increased catalase activity 50-60% in testis)

Menendez CE, Hacker P, Sonnenfeld M, McConnell R, Rivlin RS – “Thyroid hormone control of glutathione reductase activity in rat erythrocytes and liver” Am J Physiol 226(6):1480-3 (1974)

Morini P, Casalino E, Sblano C, Landriscina C – “The response of rat liver lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione concentration to the thyroid hormone” Int J Biochem 23(10):1025-30 (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1786846

Mutaku JF, Many MC, Colin I, Denef JF, van den Hove MF – “Antigoitrogenic effect of combined supplementation with dl-alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and of dl-alpha-tocopherol alone in the rat” J Endocrinol 156(3):551-61 (1998)
http://journals.endocrinology.org/joe/156/0551/1560551.pdf

Nath N, Nath M, Muddeshwar MG – “Ascorbic acid in thyroidectomized rats. II) Ascorbic acid status of the storage tissues and hepatic biosynthesis of glucuronic acid”  Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 6(2):91-5 (1984)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6541861

Nehal M, Baquer NZ – “Changes in hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in red cells during hypo and hyperthyroidism” Biochem Int 19(1):193-9 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2775300

“The observations further confirm the hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones on the cellular metabolism.”


Pamplona R, Portero-Otin M, Ruiz C, Bellmunt MJ, Requena JR, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW, Romero M, Lopez-Torres M, Barja G – “Thyroid status modulates glycoxidative and lipoxidative modification of tissue proteins” Free Radic Biol Med 27(7-8):901-10 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10515595

Pandolfi C, Ferrari D, Stanic I, Pellegrini L – “Circulating levels of CoQ10 in hypo- and hyperthyroidism” Minerva Endocrinol 19(3):139-42 (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7799896

“Finally an inverse relation of CoQ10 with fT3 and tT3, but not with fT4 and tT4, has been shown.”


Paradies G, Ruggiero FM, Dinoi P – “The influence of hypothyroidism on the transport of phosphate and on the lipid composition in rat-liver mitochondria” Biochim Biophys Acta 1070(1):180-6 (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1751524

Pereira B, Rosa LF, Safi DA, Bechara EJ, Curi R – “Control of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rat lymphoid organs by thyroid hormones” J Endocrinol 140(1):73-7 (1994)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8138754

Petrovic N, Cvijic G, Davidovic V – “The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of uncoupling protein-1 in the brown adipose tissue of hypothyroid rats: comparison with effects of iopanoic acid” Physiol Res 50(3):289-97 (2001) FULL TEXT
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11521740

“…suggesting that the optimal T3 concentration in the IBAT is necessary for maintaining basal levels of these key mitochondrial parameters.”


Raederstorff D, Meier CA, Moser U, Walter P – “Hypothyroidism and thyroxin substitution affect the n-3 fatty acid composition of rat liver mitochondria” Lipids 26(10):781-7(1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1795599

Rahaman SO, Ghosh S, Mohanakumar KP, Das S, Sarkar PK – Hypothyroidism in the developing rat brain is associated with marked oxidative stress and aberrant intraneuronal accumulation of neurofilaments” Neurosci Res 40(3):273-9 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11448519

Ramadurai SM, Nielsen HC, Chen Y, Hatzis D, Sosenko IR – “Differential effects in vivo of thyroid hormone on the expression of surfactant phospholipid, surfactant protein mRNA and antioxidant enzyme mRNA in fetal rat lung”  Exp Lung Res.   24(5):641-57(1998)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9779374

Resch U, Helsel G, Tatzber F, Sinzinger H – “Antioxidant status in thyroid dysfunction” Clin Chem Lab Med 40(11):1132-4 (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12521231

“Our study shows that both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are associated with enhanced oxidative stress involving enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.”


Ruggiero FM, Landriscina C, Gnoni GV, Quagliariello E – “Lipid composition of liver mitochondria and microsomes in hyperthyroid rats” Lipids 19(3):171-8 (1984)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6717248

Saito T – “Superoxide dismutase level in human erythrocytes and its clinical application to the patients with cancers and thyroidal dysfunctions.”  Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 62(2):257-68 (1987)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3610027

“The author suggests therefore that erythrocyte SOD activity has a close relationship to the state of the thyroid hormones.”


Sarandol E, Tas S, Dirican M, Serdar Z – “Oxidative stress and serum paraoxonase activity in experimental hypothyroidism: effect of vitamin E supplementation” Cell Biochem Funct (June 2004)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15386442

Sawant BU, Nadkarni GD, Thakare UR, Joseph LJ, Rajan MG – “Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in kidney of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats.” Indian J Exp Biol 41(11):1334-7 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15332508

Seven A, Tasan E, Hatemi H, Burcak G – “The impact of propylthiouracil therapy on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status parameters in hyperthyroid patients” Acta Med Okayama 53(1):27-30 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10096735

“Our findings suggest a selective modification of the antioxidative profile in hyperthyroidism”


Seven A, Seymen O, Hatemi S, Hatemi H, Yigit G, Candan G. – “Antioxidant status in experimental hyperthyroidism: effect of vitamin E supplementation” Clin Chim Acta 256(1):65-74 (1996)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8960788

Seven R, Gelisgen R, Seven A, Erbil Y, Bozbora A, Burcak G – “Influence of propylthiouracil treatment on oxidative stress and nitric oxide in Basedow disease patients” J Toxicol Environ Health A 62(7):495-503 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11289700

Seymen HO, Civelek S, Seven A, Yigit G, Hatemi H, Burcak G – “Iron supplementation in experimental hyperthyroidism: effects on oxidative stress in skeletal muscle tissue” Yonsei Med J.  45(3):413-8 (2004)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15227727

Seymen HO, Seven A, Civelek S, Yigit G, Hatemi H, Burcak G – “Evaluation of antioxidant status in liver tissues: effect of iron supplementation in experimental hyperthyroidism”  J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 10(4):315-25 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10631595

Seymen O, Seven A, Candan G, Yigit G, Hatemi S, Hatemi H- “The effect of iron supplementation on GSH levels, GSH-Px, and SOD activities of erythrocytes in L-thyroxine administration” Acta Med Okayama  51(3):129-33 (1997)

Shinohara R, Mano T, Nagasaka A, Hayashi R, Uchimura K, Nakano I, Watanabe F, Tsugawa T, Makino M, Kakizawa H, Nagata M, Iwase K, Ishizuki Y, Itoh M – “Lipid peroxidation levels in rat cardiac muscle are affected by age and thyroid status” J Endocrinol.  164(1):97-102 (2000)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10607942

“Concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in the old rats were high in the hyperthyroid state and low in the hypothyroid state.”


Sosenko IR, Frank L – “Thyroid inhibition and developmental increases in fetal rat lung antioxidant enzymes” Am J Physiol 257(2 Pt 1):L94-9 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2764120

Tacconi MT, Cizza G, Fumagalli G, Sarzi Sartori P, Salmona M – “Effect of hypothyroidism induced in adult rats on brain membrane fluidity and lipid content and composition” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 71(1):85-103 (1991)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2024067

Tapia G, Cornejo P, Fernandez V, Videla LA – “Protein oxidation in thyroid hormone-induced liver oxidative stress: relation to lipid peroxidation” Toxicol 106(2-3):209-14 (1999)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10403665

Tas S, Dirican M, Sarandol E, Serdar Z – “The effect of
taurine supplementation on oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism” Cell Biochem Funct. 2004 Dec 22; [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15617030

Teare JP, Greenfield SM, Marway JS, Preedy VR, Punchard NA, Peters TJ, Thompson RP – “Effect of thyroidectomy and adrenalectomy on changes in liver glutathione and malonaldehyde levels after acute ethanol injection” Free Radic Biol Med 14(6):655-60 (1993)

Tong YJ, Teng WP, Jin Y, Li YS, Guan HX, Wang WB, Gao TS, T – “An epidemiological study on the relationship between selenium and thyroid function in areas with different iodine intake” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 83(23):2036-9 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14703411

“The FT3/FT4 ratio was decreased, the FT4 level was increased in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients in comparison with the normal controls….In normal controls serum selenium was inversely correlated with serum TSH level…selenium deficiency can impair thyroid function by means of disturbing thyroid hormone metabolism and decreasing antioxidant ability of the thyroid.”


Underwood EJ – “Trace Elements in Human and  Animal Nutrition” Fourth Edition. New York and London: Academic Press, P.363 (1977)

Varghese S, Lakshmy PS, Oommen OV- – “Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities by triiodothyronine (T3) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in rat liver” Endocr Res 27(4):409-16 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11794465

“From these results it can be concluded that both T3 and PUFA have profound influence on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver.”


Varghese S, Shameena B, Oommen OV – “Thyroid hormones regulate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in Anabas testudineus (Bloch)” Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 128(1):165-71 (2001)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11163315

Venditti P, De Rosa R, Di Meo S – “Effect of thyroid state on susceptibility to oxidants and swelling of mitochondria from rat tissues” Free Radic Biol Med 35(5):485-94 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12927598

Venditti P, Balestrieri M, Di Meo S, De Leo T – “Effect of thyroid state on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defences, and susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat tissues” J Endocrinol.  155(1):151-7 (1997)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9390017

Venditti P, Puca A, Di Meo S – “Effects of thyroid state on H2O2 production by rat heart mitochondria: sites of production with complex I- and complex II-linked substrates” Horm Metab Res. 35(1):55-61 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12669272

Venditti P, De Leo T, Di Meo S – “Vitamin E administration attenuates the tri-iodothyronine-induced modification of heart electrical activity in the rat” J Exp Biol 200 ( Pt 5):909-14 (1997) FULL TEXT
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9100363

Videla LA, Sir T, Wolff C – “Increased lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid patients: suppression by propylthiouracil treatment” Free Radic Res Commun. 5(1):1-10 (1988)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3234861

Vladimirov IuA, Marzoev AI, Turchina SL, Pechatnikov VA – “Transmembrane potential of rat liver mitochondria in hypothyreosis”  Biull Eksp Biol Med 97(2):167-9 (1984)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6696982

Vlasov BIa, Buinov BB – “Ascorbic acid level in blood serum in exogenous and endogenous thyrotoxicosis” Vopr Med Khim 39(5):37-8 (1993)

Voudouri AE, Chadio SE, Menegatos JG, Zervas GP, Nicol F, Arthur JR – “Selenoenzyme activities in selenium- and iodine-deficient sheep” Biol Trace Elem Res 94(3):213-24 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12972689

Williams MT, Carrington H, Herrera A – “Stimulation of mouse liver glutathione S-transferase activity in propylthiouracil-treated mice in vivo by tri-iodothyronine” Biochem J  233(2):595-8 (1986)

Wilson RA, Hart J, Hall T, Vincent SH – Inverse relationship between total glutathione S-transferase content and bile acid release in isolated hepatocytes from untreated, phenobarbital pretreated and hypothyroid rats” Pharmacol Toxicol 66(2):121-7 (1990)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2315263

Yan Y, Fang H, Xiang J – “A study on membrane fluidity of thyroid gland in rats with iodine deficiency or iodine excess” Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34(5):266-8 (2000)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11372391

“Serum T4 and T3 levels in the low iodine (LI) group were markedly decreased, and the thyroid SOD and GPx activities and MDA content were significantly increased compared with the other two groups.”


Yilmaz S, Ozan S, Benzer F, Canatan H – “Oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in experimental hypothyroidism” Cell Biochem Funct.  21(4):325-30 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14624470

“While glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity levels did not change in heart, brain and liver tissues of 30-day-old rats, they increased in brain and heart tissues of 60-day-old experimental groups, but decreased in the liver. Catalase activities decreased in the liver and heart of rats with hypothyroidism, but increased in erythrocytes.”


Zelinskaia NB – “The significance of studying phospholipids in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism” Vrach Delo (5):79-81 (1989)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2773445