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The company which has supplied the funding for the mass salt fluoridation programs in Latin America is Kellogg’s, through the Kellogg Foundation.
In the 1980s it helped implement universal salt fluoridation in Costa Rica and Peru.
In 1996 it supplied a multi-year grant worth $750,000 to start mass salt fluoridation programs which were then carried out by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), covering 350 million people in Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.
The project was part of a multi-year plan launched by PAHO in 1994 to “fluoridate the entire Region of the Americas”.
PAHO Director Dr. George Alleyne thanked Kellogg’s, promising to “make sure that the contribution to this program will change the oral health situation in the six selected countries for the benefit of the relevant population.” (PAHO Press Release, Aug. 23, 1996).
The Kellogg Foundation manipulates Public Health policies not only by funding the actual implementation of fluoride programs, but by the gathering of “science” and its dissemination (education). Its funding established CEDROS (Cooperation in Studies and Development of Dental Resources to the Health Sector) in 1990, and the National Information Network on Oral Health Sciences in 1992. (More on these institutions below.)
As stated a few months back by Dr. William Richardson himself, President of the Kellogg Foundation:
"The Kellogg Foundation supported an international symposium under the auspices of PAHO and the WHO and through dissemination by universities and other organizations were able to get this information out....In the 1980s, the Kellogg Foundation helped implement salt-fluoridation practices in Costa Rica and Peru. By the mid 1990s we had seen clear examples of their success....We provided follow-up funding so that PAHO could save extend salt-fluoridation to tens and tens of million people in other countries in the region."(Richardson, PAHO 2002)
To provide just one example as to how this program works:
In 1992, Kellogg sponsored a symposium under the direction of University of Puerto Rico (School of Dentistry) involving dental researchers from North, Central and South America.
They convened at the Indiana University in the US (School of Dentistry) to “develop the communication network among dental health experts throughout the Americas...”.
Indiana University was selected “because of its international reputation in dental research, specially in the area of fluoridation”.
The information was then distributed to 225 oral health care institutions in Latin America.
Ever since 1931 Kellogg’s has had a major role in Public Health - when the Michigan Community Health Partnership (MCHP) was started - very shortly after the Kellogg Foundation was established.
Some Kellogg History
(Including information generously supplied by Peter Meiers, Germany. Peter surely is the world’s foremost historian on all matters related to fluoride. Please check out his website: http://pmeiers.bei.t-online.de/
In 1909 Kellogg Company sold more than one million cases of cereal. By 1911 the company's advertising budget had reached $1 million - a huge amount for the time. By 1917 production capacity reached nine million boxes per day.
The “bad effects” of sugar on teeth (amounts of which are incredibly high in cereals) became increasingly known. (At the same time, use of fluoride pesticides on cereal crops increased. Of particular benefit were the effects of fluorides on moths, same being known as the worst enemy of cereals in storage. Many patents were issued at the time attesting to fluoride’s benefits as moth ‘repellant’. (Sulfuryl fluoride, Tefluthrin (Zeneca) and Isoxaflutole are common fluoride pesticides currently used on corn.)
Kellogg and dentistry to the rescue?
In 1930, Kellogg Company’s owner, Will Keith Kellogg, established his famous Kellogg Foundation which now spends incredible amounts of money annually, as well as man-power, in the interest of a strong (dental) public health movement and for the implementation of fluoridation programs worldwide.
In establishing the foundation, Kellogg transferred to it the majority of Kellogg Company stocks (51%), and thus the fate of his company. Well-known dentists Emory W. Morris - director; first chairman of the ADA Council on Dental Health in 1942, and Phil Blackerby - associate director and later WHO consultant, represented just two members of their staff.
George Darling, a Dr. P. H. (Doctor of Public Health) graduate of the University of Michigan, was the first president of the Kellogg Foundation.
In 1938, the dental profession of Michigan and the Dental School of the University of Michigan received US $500,000 to be used for creating a building to be known as the "W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute for Graduate and Postgraduate Dental Education".
In 1941, the foundation made an additional grant of $110,000 to the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. In addition, the Foundation offered to nearly all dental schools a fund of ten thousand dollars to provide scholarships or loans for deserving students at the discretion of the school administration.
This same year, the Kellogg and the Rockefeller Foundations each contributed $500,000 for the erection of a new School of Public Health at the University of Michigan campus. It is fact that names of the first lecturers and department directors of this school also were listed among the members of the Boards of Trustees of the Kellogg Foundation.
It was at this School that, while preparing his “Master of Public Health” thesis, the later director of the Newburgh/Kingston Caries Fluorine project, David Bernard Ast, was taught what constitutes a 'public health problem'.
NOTE: The massive fluoridation programs in Latin America are initiated by people who have obtained a “Masters of Public Health” degree in the US. As Marthaler writes in 2001, citing the factors which were beneficial for salt fluoridation programs:
“...the experts...almost all of them have went through training as a ‘Master of Public Health‘ in the US. They are very conscious of the simple truth that a preventative measure must reach the majority of the population.”(Marthaler, 2001)
The University of Michigan School of Dentistry, then represented by Profs. Russell Bunting and Philip Jay, once was famous for research - since the early 30´s - on the role of sugar and certain bacteria (lactobacilli) in dental caries. In 1927 and again in 1933 they met Tren Dean and Fred McKay at Minonk, Illinois, a mottled enamel area, but weren’t too much impressed about the reduction in tooth decay there. They continued their sugar related research until in the late 30’s. In 1940, Jay suddenly announced:
...should information about sugar’s bad effects "become widespread to the extent that the sale of sugar becomes seriously affected, teeth would be spared only at the expense of our economic welfare. Too large a proportion of the world’s population is directly dependent upon the sugar industry for its distress not to be felt by everyone".
Hence, he started reporting on fluoride “benefits”.
Kellogg’s has also been instrumental in setting up other programs within dentistry in Latin America, such as the Dental Documentation Service (SDO), a Coordinating Center of the National Information Network on Oral Health Sciences:
“In 1992, the creation of the National Information Network on Oral Health Sciences, under the sponsorship of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and with technical support from BIREME, OPAS, WHO, has guaranteed a more agile, constant service to researchers in the field of oral health sciences.” (Krzysanowski , 1994)
CEDROS & Kellogg’s
“CEDROS is an acronym in Portuguese (Rede para Cooperação em Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Recursos Odontológico para o Setor Saúde) for Cooperation in Studies and Development of Dental Resources to the Health Sector. The network consists of individuals in institutions or in private dental practice that work together toward the solution of problems concerned with the oral health of the
Latin America population. The Network was created in 1990, with the financial support from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. Its executive secretariat is located in the World Health Collaborating Center for Research and Promotion of Oral Health of the Dental School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.”
“The CEDROS Network has ambitious goals. It intends to be a link in the dental profession, which is represented by councils, associations, dental services delivery, and academic institutions dedicated to education and research. It also intends to be a link connecting Brazil and other Latin American countries, with the small planet we live in. Finally, it hopes to stimulate and facilitate projects involving university, public sector and private institutions.”
SOURCE: CEDROS Network
Various Items & Sources
During March 15-17, 1992 dental researchers from North, Central and South America convened at the Indiana University, Schjool of Dentistry to “develop the communication network among dental health experts throughout the Americas in an effort towards the improvement of oral health in hot hemispheres.”
“The workshop was part of a series of five seminars coordinated and administered by the University of Puerto Rico, School of Dentistry, and funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the University of Puerto Rico, School of Dentistry.”
“Indiana University was selected because of its international reputation in dental research, specially in the area of fluoridation. Members of the I.U. dental faculty, led by Dean William Gilmore and Dr. George K. Stookey were among the lecturers.”
“Institutions and associations, such as the National Institute of Dental Research, the American Association of Dental Schools, the International Association of Dental Research, and the International College of Dentists were represented at the workshop. Proceeding of this important seminar will be published and sent to 225 oral health care institutions in Latin America.”
SOURCE: Aponte RI - “Indiana University School of Dentistry hosted the Second North-South Project on Dental Education” CEDROS Newsletter 1992 http://www.ibiblio.org/taft/cedros/english/newsletter/n3/News.html
NOTE: PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (PAHO) is the Regional Office for the Americas of the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO).
Krzysanowski RF - “Dental Documentation Service - SDO: Coordinating Center of the National Information Network on Oral Health Sciences.” CEDROS Newsletter Year III · N.5 · (1994)
Marthaler TM - “Salt fluoridation in Europe, comparisons with Latin America” 8th World Salt Symposium (2000); Volume 2: 1021-1026 (2000)
Marthaler TM - “Kariesvorbeugung mit fluoridiertem Speisesalz in Europa und Lateinamerika” (2001)
Richardson (Kellogg Foundation) - Speech at 3rd Panel "Best Practices in Interagency Collaboration" PAHO Conference 2002
PAHO Press Release, Aug. 23, 1996
More on how the program was implemented:
CEDROS NETWORK ACTIVITIES
Kellogg Company Profile
Kellogg Company sold more than one million cases of cereal in 1909, and by 1911 the company's advertising budget had reached $1 million. In 1917 production capacity reached nine million boxes per day. In 1980, United States production of Kellogg's ready-to-eat cereals required more than 110,000 bushels of corn, 225,000 pounds of bran, 9,000 bushels of wheat and 12,000 pounds of wheat germ each day. By its seventy-fifth anniversary in 1981, Kellogg Company had forty-seven plants operating in twenty-one countries.
History of The Kellogg’s Company