Wallukat G, Hohberger B, Wenzel K, Fürst J, Schulze-Rothe S, Wallukat A, Hönicke AS, Müller J - "Functional autoantibodies against G-protein coupled receptors in patients with persistent Long-COVID-19 symptoms" J Transl Autoimmun 4:100100 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC8049853/
SEE also:"Impairment of health after overcoming the acute phase of COVID-19 is being observed more and more frequently. Here different symptoms of neurological and/or cardiological origin have been reported. With symptoms, which are very similar to the ones reported but are not caused by SARS-CoV-2, the occurrence of functionally active autoantibodies (fAABs) targeting G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR-fAABs) has been discussed to be involved."
"Investigated patients had between 2 and 7 different GPCR-fAAB (Table 1). This was a surprising unexpected effect. In healthy controls, which are included in many studies, these autoantibodies are only found in a small percentage [37,38]”.
"The astonishing finding of this investigation is the fact that an unusually high number of GPCR-fAABs were detected in the serum of recovered COVID-19 patients who mostly suffered from a variety of different post-COVID-19 symptoms. Due to the functionality of such GPCR-fAABs, the question of whether these GPCR-fAABs may play a role in the development of post-COVID-19 symptoms is raised."
"Two of the identified GPCR-fAABs, observed in over 90% of the investigated COVID-19 patient sera (29/31), were directed against receptors of RAS, namely the angiotensin II AT1 receptor and the angiotensin (1–7) MAS receptor."
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Cabana J, Holleran B, Leduc R, Escher E, Guillemette G, Lavigne P - "Identification of Distinct Conformations of the Angiotensin-II Type 1 Receptor Associated with the Gq/11 Protein Pathway and the β-Arrestin Pathway Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations" J Biol Chem 290(25):15835-15854 (2015)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC4505491/
Turu G, Várnai P, Gyombolai P, Szidonya L, Offertaler L, Bagdy G, Kunos G, Hunyady L - "Paracrine transactivation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor by AT1 angiotensin and other Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors" J Biol Chem 284(25):16914-16921 (2009)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC2719328/