ADHD and Iodine

All adverse health effects of fluoride are related to thyroid hormone metabolism.
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wendy
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Joined: Mon Apr 03, 2006 5:51 am

ADHD and Iodine

Post by wendy »

1. Iodine Intake and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb)

Even slight elevations in iodine intake may produce higher levels of TPOAb in pregnant women (Sun et al., 2022; Shi et al., 2016; Habimana et al., 2014).

Maternal TPOAb positivity is associated with lower IQ in the offspring (Derakhshan et al., 2018; Wasserman et al., 2012), ADHD and behavioral problems (Ghassabian et al., 2012; 2011), as well as miscarriage and preterm delivery (Consortium on Thyroid and Pregnancy—Study Group on Preterm Birth, 2019; Thangaratinam et al., 2012; He et al., 2012).

Evidence obtained from the Baltimore Collaborative Perinatal Project showed that maternal TPOAb positivity was associated with lower IQ in children at 4 years of age - same age as the MIREC children (Wasserman et al. 2012).

Elevated TPOAb values in pregnancy are related to elevated TSH and FT4 levels (Wang et al., 2014). See MIREC data (Hall et al., 2023).


2. ADHD and Iodine Intake

The studies below document the increase in ADHD associated with maternal iodine supplementation.

Abel MH, Ystrom E, Caspersen IH, Meltzer HM, Aase H, Torheim LE, Askeland RB, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Brantsæter AL - "Maternal Iodine Intake and Offspring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Large Prospective Cohort Study" Nutrients 9(11):1239 (2017) doi: 10.3390/nu9111239 MoBa
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707711/
"The maternal use of supplemental iodine was associated with an increased risk of child ADHD diagnosis and a higher mean ADHD symptom score...Initiating iodine supplement use in the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of ADHD diagnosis, whereas use before pregnancy was associated with increased child ADHD symptom scores."

Engel SM, Villanger GD, Herring A, Nethery RC, Drover SSM, Zoeller RT, Meltzer HM, Zeiner P, Knudsen GP, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Longnecker MP, Aase H - "Gestational thyroid hormone concentrations and risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study" Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 37(3):218-228 (2023) doi: 10.1111/ppe.12941
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12941. MoBa
"Both high and low concentrations of maternal thyroid hormones, although within population reference ranges, increase the risk of ADHD in offspring."

Ghassabian A, Bongers-Schokking JJ, de Rijke YB, van Mil N, Jaddoe VW, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hooijkaas H, Hofman A, Visser W, Roman GC, Visser TJ, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H - "Maternal thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy and the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems in children: the Generation R Study" Thyroid 22(2):178-86 (2012). doi: 10.1089/thy.2011.0318
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271370/ Generation R
"However, elevated titers of TPOAbs in mothers were associated with externalizing problems in children (odds ratio [OR]=1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.29, p=0.004). In particular, children of TPOAb-positive mothers were at a higher risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.15–2.72, p=0.01)."

Modesto T, Tiemeier H, Peeters RP, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, Ghassabian A - "Maternal Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency in Early Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children" JAMA Pediatr 169(9):838-45 (2015) doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0498 Generation R
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamape ... le/2344550
"Children exposed to maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy had more ADHD symptoms, independent of confounders."

Villanger GD, Ystrom E, Engel SM, Longnecker MP, Pettersen R, Rowe AD, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Aase H - "Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder" Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 34(5):590-596 (2020) doi: 10.1111/ppe.12643
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12643. MoBa
"In multivariable, quintile models the relationship appeared to follow a U-shaped pattern with elevated odds ratios (OR) at lower and higher TSH levels."
  • see: Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Ribas-Fitó N, Torrent M, Julvez J, Ferrer C, Sunyer J - "TSH concentration within the normal range is associated with cognitive function and ADHD symptoms in healthy preschoolers" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 66(6):890-8 (2007)
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10. ... 07.02871.x

    Pérez-Lobato R, Ramos R, Arrebola JP, Calvente I, Ocón-Hernández O, Dávila-Arias C, Pérez-García M, Olea N, Fernández MF - "Thyroid status and its association with cognitive functioning in healthy boys at 10 years of age" Eur J Endocrinol 172(2):129-39 (2015)
    https://eje.bioscientifica.com/view/jou ... /2/129.xml
    "Thus, poor child cognitive function is significantly associated with higher TSH levels but not with intermediate levels, following an inverse U-shaped curve."

The following studies report on the association of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) with increased iodine intake, and the association of elevated TPOab with loss of IQ and ADHD.

Chen D, Meng F, Liu L, Du Y, Jiao L, Liu S, Liu Y, Huang J, Wang X, Liang N, Sun G, Xi J - "A typical investigation of thyroid nodules in adults of Juye county of Shandong province" Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 29(1):5-8 (2014)
https://www.cabdirect.org/globalhealth/ ... 0143211874

Consortium on Thyroid and Pregnancy—Study Group on Preterm Birth; Korevaar TIM, Derakhshan A, Taylor PN, Meima M, Chen L, Bliddal S, Carty DM, Meems M, Vaidya B, Shields B, Ghafoor F, Popova PV, Mosso L, Oken E, Suvanto E, Hisada A, Yoshinaga J, Brown SJ, Bassols J, Auvinen J, Bramer WM, López-Bermejo A, Dayan C, Boucai L, Vafeiadi M, Grineva EN, Tkachuck AS, Pop VJM, Vrijkotte TG, Guxens M, Chatzi L, Sunyer J, Jiménez-Zabala A, Riaño I, Murcia M, Lu X, Mukhtar S, Delles C, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Nelson SM, Alexander EK, Chaker L, Männistö T, Walsh JP, Pearce EN, Steegers EAP, Peeters RP - "Association of Thyroid Function Test Abnormalities and Thyroid Autoimmunity With Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" JAMA 322(7):632-641 (2019) doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.10931
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/f ... le/2748509

Derakhshan A, Korevaar TIM, Taylor PN, Levie D, Guxens M, Jaddoe VWV, Nelson SM, Tiemeier H, Peeters RP - "The Association of Maternal Thyroid Autoimmunity During Pregnancy With Child IQ" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103(10):3729-3736 (2018)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30020468/

Ghassabian A, Bongers-Schokking JJ, de Rijke YB, van Mil N, Jaddoe VW, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hooijkaas H, Hofman A, Visser W, Roman GC, Visser TJ, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H - "Maternal thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy and the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems in children: the Generation R Study" Thyroid 22(2):178-86 (2012). doi: 10.1089/thy.2011.0318
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271370/

Ghassabian A, Bongers-Schokking JJ, Henrichs J, Jaddoe VW, Visser TJ, Visser W, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hooijkaas H, Steegers EA, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, van der Ende J, de Rijke YB, Tiemeier H - "Maternal thyroid function during pregnancy and behavioral problems in the offspring: the generation R study" Pediatr Res 69(5 Pt 1):454-9 (2011) doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182125b0c
https://www.nature.com/articles/pr9201184

Habimana L, Twite KE, Daumerie C, Wallemacq P, Donnen P, Kalenga MK, Robert A - "High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo" Thyroid 24(3):568-75 (2014)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949433/

He X, Wang P, Wang Z, He X, Xu D, Wang B - "Thyroid antibodies and risk of preterm delivery: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies" Eur J Endocrinol 167:455–464 (2012)

Levie D, Derakhshan A, Shu H, Broeren MAC, de Poortere RA, Peeters RP, Bornehag CG, Demeneix B, Korevaar TIM - "The Association of Maternal Iodine Status in Early Pregnancy with Thyroid Function in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and Child, Asthma and Allergy Study" Thyroid 29(11):1660-1668 (2019) doi: 10.1089/thy.2019.0164
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31524090/
Image
(Note U-shape > iodine deficiency/iodine excess)

Shi X, Han C, Li C, Mao J, Wang W, Xie X, Li C, Xu B, Meng T, Du J, Zhang S, Gao Z, Zhang X, Fan C, Shan Z, Teng W - "Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: a cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100(4):1630-8 (2015)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25629356/

Sun R, Qian TT, Liu LC, Zhao M, Che WJ, Zhang L, Li WD, Jia QZ, Wang JH, Li JS, Chen ZH, Liu P - "Effect of Iodine Supplementation on Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study" Biomedicine and Environmental Science: English Edition" 7:641-647 (2022)

Thangaratinam S, Tan A, Knox E, Kilby MD, Franklyn J, Coomarasamy A - "Association between thyroid autoantibodies and miscarriage and preterm birth: meta-analysis of evidence" BMJ 342:d2616 (2011) doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2616
https://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d2616.long

Teti C, Panciroli M, Nazzari E, Pesce G, Mariotti S, Olivieri A, Bagnasco M - "Iodoprophylaxis and thyroid autoimmunity: an update" Immunol Res 69(2):129-138 (2021) doi: 10.1007/s12026-021-09192-6
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106604/

Villanger GD, Ystrom E, Engel SM, Longnecker MP, Pettersen R, Rowe AD, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Aase H - "Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder" Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 34(5):590-596 (2020) doi: 10.1111/ppe.12643
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431377/

Wang X, Jia F, Tian J, Liu D - "Iodine nutrition and thyroid autoantibodies in pregnancy and their relation to thyroid function" Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 5:408-410 (2014)
http://222.198.130.40:81/Qikan/Article/ ... d=49757638

Wasserman EE, Pillion JP, Duggan A, Nelson K, Rohde C, Seaberg EC, Talor MV, Yolken RH, Rose NR - "Childhood IQ, hearing loss, and maternal thyroid autoimmunity in the Baltimore Collaborative Perinatal Project" Pediatr Res 72(5):525-30 (2012) doi: 10.1038/pr.2012.117
https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2012117
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Update: July 19, 2023

At low doses, fluoride's anti-iodine properties could potentially offer advantages in certain cases of ADHD stemming from excessive iodine levels. A recent investigation conducted in Gipuzkoa, where nearly all pregnant women were taking a specific iodine supplement, revealed that elevated levels of maternal urinary fluoride were linked to a reduced risk of cognitive issues, particularly inattention, by the age of 11 (Ibarluzea et al., 2023). Regrettably, the study authors did not provide information regarding iodine intake or factor it into their analysis.

Ibarluzea J, Subiza-Pérez M, Arregi A, Molinuevo A, Arranz-Freijo E, de Miguel MS, Jiménez A, Andiarena A, Santa-Marina L, Lertxundi A - "Association of maternal prenatal urinary fluoride levels with ADHD symptoms in childhood" Environ Res. 2023 Jul 19:116705. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.116705. Epub ahead of print. INMA
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 5123015098}
"Higher levels of MUFcr in pregnant women were associated with a lower risk of cognitive problems-inattention at 11 years. These findings are inconsistent with those from previous studies and indicate the need for other population-based studies to confirm or overturn these results."

Studies have also shown that fluoride may reduce TPOab levels in populations with high iodine intake (Chen et al., 2014). Maternal TPOab positivity is associated with increased ADHD in offspring (see above).

Chen Diqun, Meng Fangang, Liu Lixiang, Zhao Rencheng, Du Yang, Jiao Lisha, Liu Shoujun, Liu Yuan, Huang Jumei, Wang Xin, Liang Na, Sun Guodong, Xi Jianguo - "A Typical Survey on Thyroid Nodules in Adults in Juye County, Shandong Province, China" Chin J Ctrl Endem Dis 29(1):5-8 (2014) PFPC Library
"Within the water iodine range of 200–300 μg/L, an increase in water fluoride from (0.99±0.29) mg/L to (1.67±0.19) mg/L led to a significant decrease in both thyroid nodule detection rates and TPOAb positivity rates."
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