Ahangarpour A, Alboghobeish S, Oroojan AA, Zeidooni L, Samimi A, Afshari G - "Effects of Combined Exposure to Chronic High-Fat Diet and Arsenic on Thyroid Function and Lipid Profile in Male Mouse" Biol Trace Elem Res 182(1):37-48 (2018)
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 017-1068-1
Ciarrocca M, Tomei F, Caciari T, Cetica C, Andrè JC, Fiaschetti M, et al. - "Exposure to arsenic in urban and rural areas and effects on thyroid hormones" Inhal Toxicol 24:589–98 (2012)
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10 ... 012.703251
Davey, JC, Nomikos, AP, Wungjiranirun, M, Sherman, JR, Ingram, L, Batki, C, et al. - "Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: arsenic disrupts retinoic acid receptor–and thyroid hormone receptor–mediated gene regulation and thyroid hormone–mediated amphibian tail metamorphosis" Environ Health Perspect 116:165–72 (2008)
Gong G, Basom J, Mattevada S, Onger F - "Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas" Environ Res 138:154-60 (2015)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 5115000286
"The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas...[arsenic in groundwater =/>8 ug/L]
Hossain MS, Begum F - "Comparison of urinary iodine, urinary arsenic, radioiodine uptake, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels, between experimental group with simple diffuse goiter and control group" Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 7:89–98.10.3329/dujps.v7i1.1224 (2008)
" In this study, another significant finding is that iodine deficiency is not only the factor of causing simple diffuse goiter, but arsenic level is also one of the most important factor of causing simple diffuse goiter."
Jain RB - "Association between arsenic exposure and thyroid function: data from NHANES 2007-2010" Int J Environ Health Res 26(1):101-29 (2016)
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. ... ode=cije20
"Hence, exposure to any environmental contaminant that may be associated with increased levels of TSH should be of concern, even if the positive association with TSH is not accompanied by a negative association with FT4... while the effect of higher levels of
arsenic is similar among iodine-deficient males and females in influencing the levels of triiodothryonine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), the influence on TSH seems to be limited to iodine-deficient males. On the other hand, even though it was only between UDMA and TSH that a statistical significant association was observed, the association between TSH and UAB, UAS, and UAAS was also weekly positive without statistical significance being reached (Table 4). The reason why the impact of higher levels of arsenic on the levels of TSH differs in males and females is not known, and to the best of our knowledge has neither been identified nor discussed before."
Jurdziak M, Gać P, Poręba M, Szymańska-Chabowska A, Mazur G, Poręba R - "Concentration of Thyrotropic Hormone in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic" Biol Trace Elem Res 182(2):196-203 (2018)
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/1 ... 1096-x.pdf
Khan KM, Parvez F, Zoeller RT, Hocevar BA, Kamendulis LM, Rohlman D, et al.- "Thyroid hormones and neurobehavioral functions among adolescents chronically exposed to groundwater with geogenic arsenic in Bangladesh" Sci Total Environ 678:278–87 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.426
Kotyzová D, Eybl V, Mihaljevic M, Glattre E - "Effect of long-term administration of arsenic (III) and bromine with and without selenium and iodine supplementation on the element level in the thyroid of rat" Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 149(2):329–33 (2005)
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/do ... 1&type=pdf
Liang C, Han Y, Ma L, Wu X, Huang K, Yan S, Li Z, Xia X, Pan W, Sheng J, Wang Q, Tong S, Cao Y, Tao F - "Low levels of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone parameters: The determinants for these associations" Environ Int 145:106114 (2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... via%3Dihub
"In this study, exposure to low levels of arsenic during pregnancy could directly affect neonatal thyroid hormone parameters without being mediated by maternal effect of exposure, and maternal serum arsenic levels in the first, second trimester and average arsenic exposure level during pregnancy and cord serum arsenic level may be risk factors affecting neonatal thyroid hormones. These findings indicate that neonates are more sensitive to the thyrotoxicity of arsenic exposure even at low levels. In addition, the adverse joint toxic effect of metal mixtures is also worthy of attention."
Liu FJ, Wang JS, Theodorakis CW - "Thyrotoxicity of sodium arsenate, sodium perchlorate, and their mixture in zebrafish Danio rerio" Environ Sci Technol 40(10):3429-36 (2006)
Mohanta RK, Garg AK, Dass RS, Behera SK - "Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and oxidant/antioxidant status of guinea pigs challenged with sodium arsenite or arsenic trioxide" Biol Trace Elem Res 160(2):238-44 (2014)
"Serum thyroid hormone levels were reduced and arsenic levels in tissues increased in both the arsenic-exposed groups, irrespective of the arsenic compound."
Molin, M, Ulven, SM, Dahl, L, Lundebye, A-K, Holck, M, Alexander, J, et al..- "Arsenic in seafood is associated with increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy volunteers–A randomized controlled trial" J Trace Elem Med Biol 44:1–7 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.05.004
"The increase in TSH was dose-dependently associated with plasma arsenic."
Palazzolo DL, Jansen KP - "The minimal arsenic concentration required to inhibit the activity of thyroid peroxidase activity in vitro" Biol Trace Elem 126:49–55 (2008).
Stibilj V, Vadnjal R, Kovac M, Holcman A - "The effect of dietary arsenic additions on the distribution of selenium and iodine in eggs and tissues of laying hens" Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46(2):275-80 (2004)
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 003-2276-6
"The addition of arsenic in feed statistically significantly increased the selenium concentration in the lungs (23%). It also
statistically significantly affected the iodine concentrations of muscle and blood, increasing it in muscle by 125% while decreasing it in blood by 37%. The cause of the higher concentration of iodine in muscle and lower concentration in blood remains to be elucidated."
Stojsavljević, A, Rovčanin, B, Jagodić, J, Radojković, DD, Paunović, I, Gavrović-Jankulović, M, et al. - "Significance of arsenic and lead in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis demonstrated on thyroid tissue, blood, and urine samples" Environ Res 86:109538 (2020)
Sun, HJ, Xiang, P, Luo, J, Hong, H, Lin, H, Li, H-B, et al. - "Mechanisms of arsenic disruption on gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems in humans: a review" Environ Int 95:61–8 (2016)
Sun HJ, Li SW, Li C, Wang WQ, Li HB, Ma LQ - "Thyrotoxicity of arsenate and arsenite on juvenile mice at organism, subcellular, and gene levels under low exposure" Chemosphere 186:580-587 (2017)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... via%3Dihub
"In this study, 10 μg L–1 AsV inhibited the transcriptional levels of Deio1 after 1-week of exposure, while it increased the transcriptional levels of Deio1 after 2–8 weeks. However, at 100 μg L–1, AsV also repressed the mRNA transcription of Deio1 after 2 weeks and increased after 4 weeks of exposure, but it returned to normal levels after 8 weeks....In short, both Deio1 and Deio2 mRNA transcription exhibited different trends with time after exposure to AsIII or AsV (Figure 6). This was because of their different function. Deio1 play an important role in activating or inactivating T4, while Deio2 is responsible for generating the active form of T3 via deiodination of T4."
Vellinga RE, Sam M, Verhagen H, Jakobsen LS, Ravn-Haren G, Sugimoto M, Torres D, Katagiri R, Thu BJ, Granby K, Hoekstra J, Temme EHM - "Increasing Seaweed Consumption in the Netherlands and Portugal and the Consequences for the Intake of Iodine, Sodium, and Exposure to Chemical Contaminants: A Risk-Benefit Study" Front Nutr 8:792923 (2022) doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.792923
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10 ... 92923/full
Fluoride & Arsenic Interaction
García M, Chang Y, Lee J - "Memory Impairment and Intelligence Retardation with Exposure to Fluoride and Arsenic" Sci Insigt 32(1):116-124 (2020) https://ssrn.com/abstract=3516892
Jiang S, Su J, Yao S, Zhang Y, Cao F, Wang F, Wang H, Li J, Xi S - "Fluoride and arsenic exposure impairs learning and memory and decreases mGluR5 expression in the hippocampus and cortex in rats" PLoS One 9(4):e96041 (2014)
"Compared with controls, learning and memory ability declined in rats that were exposed to fluoride and arsenic both alone and combined. Combined fluoride and arsenic exposure did not have a more pronounced effect on spatial learning and memory compared with arsenic and fluoride exposure alone. Compared with controls, glutamate levels decreased in the hippocampus and cortex of rats exposed to fluoride and combined fluoride and arsenic, and in cortex of arsenic-exposed rats. mGluR5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus and mGluR5 protein expression in the cortex decreased in rats exposed to arsenic alone. Interestingly, compared with fluoride and arsenic exposure alone, fluoride and arsenic combination decreased mGluR5 mRNA expression in the cortex and protein expression in the hippocampus, suggesting a synergistic effect of fluoride and arsenic. These data indicate that fluoride and arsenic, either alone or combined, can decrease learning and memory ability in rats. The mechanism may be associated with changes of glutamate level and mGluR5 expression in cortex and hippocampus."
Khan H, Verma Y, Rana SVS - "Significance of Inflammation and Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Death in Rat, Co-treated with Arsenic and Fluoride" Biol Trace Elem Res (2021) doi: 10.1007/s12011-021-02929-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34850329
"Results on NO, TBARS, and caspase-9 showed higher values than fluoride-treated rats but lower levels than arsenic-treated rats."
Mondal P, Chattopadhyay A - "Environmental exposure of arsenic and fluoride and their combined toxicity: A recent update" J Appl Toxicol 40(5):552-566 (2020)
"Previous reports showed synergistic, antagonistic and independent effects of these two compounds, although few recent reports also revealed antagonistic effects after co-exposure. Interaction during intestinal absorption and influence of F on As metabolism might be the cause of antagonism. The synergism/antagonism is thought to depend on the dose and duration of the co-exposure."
Qi-bing Zeng, Yu-yan Xu, Xian Yu, Jun Yang, Feng Hong, Ai-hua Zhang - "The combined effects of fluorine and arsenic on renal function in a Chinese population" Toxicology Research5(3):359–366 (2014)
"By observing the changes of renal function biomarkers, the results show that fluoride and arsenic can induce glomerular and tubular injury. For the observed exposure levels, the combined effect of fluoride and arsenic on renal function is mainly one of antagonism. Moreover, the benchmark dose and its lower confidence limit were calculated to estimate the exposure limits for urine arsenic (UAs) and urine fluoride (UF). The results indicate that the critical concentrations of UF and UAs for renal function injury were estimated, respectively, to be 0.54 mg g−1 Cr and 10.50 μg g−1 Cr in a population co-exposed to fluoride and arsenic; and urine albumin can be used as a relatively sensitive biomarker of renal function."
Zhu YP, Xi SH, Li MY, Ding TT, Liu N, Cao FY, Zeng Y, Liu XJ, Tong JW, Jiang SF - "Fluoride and arsenic exposure affects spatial memory and activates the ERK/CREB signaling pathway in offspring rats" Neurotoxicology 59:56-64 (2017)
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm ... id=3516892
Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, Li J, Sang ZP, Zhang XD, Han LL, Qiao XY, Wu ZM, Wang ZQ - "Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China" Environ Health Perspect 115(4):643-7 (2007)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC1852689/
Finerty JC, Grace JD - "DETOXICATION OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF FLUORIDES" Science 101(2623):359-60 (1945) doi: 10.1126/science.101.2623.359. PMID: 17755601.
"Arsenic has been suggested as a causative factor in goiter and has been shown to be antagonistic to iodine.5.6...The experiments to be described in this paper are an attempt to demonstrate in vivo antagonism between two elements, arsenic and fluorine, using arsenic in one of its most virulent forms, the inorganic trivalent arsenious acid."
The root of all adverse health effects
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