2019: Fluoride and TSH in PCOS

All adverse health effects of fluoride are related to thyroid hormone metabolism.
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2019: Fluoride and TSH in PCOS

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It was noted that women with PCOS with higher concentration of fluorine in plasma have a significantly higher level of TSH, still being within the range regarded as normal.

Szczuko M, Splinter J, Zapałowska-Chwyć M, Ziętek M, Maciejewska D - "Fluorine may intensify the mechanisms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) development via increased insulin resistance and disturbed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis even at reference levels" Med Hypotheses 128:58-63 (2019)

We were interested whether fluorine, at the concentrations regarded as normal,
can play a role in PCOS pathogenesis. The effect was not described in PCOS. Women
with PCOS were diagnosed according to Rotterdam's criteria. The average age of 40
examined women with PCOS was 26.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI-29.16 ± 0.8, WHR-0.91 ± 0.08.
Main Outcome Measures: ECLIA was used to analyse testosterone, FSH, LH,
oestradiol, TSH, prolactin, insulin and SHBG. Fluorine content was analysed by
potentiometry using ion selective electrode. Fluorine content in serum of women
with PCOS did not statistically significantly differ from that of the control
group and amounted to 0.224 ± 0.043 and 0.228 ± 0.023 ppm, respectively. There
were significant differences in the levels of TSH and HOMA-IR between the groups.
Based on the correlation matrix, a negative correlation with the level of SHBG
protein and the level of glucose on fasting was showed for the group with a lower
of fluorine, and a positive correlation with HDL level was observed in the group
with higher concentration of fluorine. In the phenotype with a higher level of
androgens, there was a negative correlation with triglycerides level and a
positive correlation with HDL. Fluorine, even in concentrations regarded as
proper, takes part in PCOS pathogenesis. It increases the synthesis of TSH and
increases insulin resistance. Higher insulin resistance leads to the reduced
synthesis of SHBG transport protein. Therefore, the key factor in PCOS
pathogenesis is testosterone, but fluorine facilitates disruptions in
carbohydrates and lipids metabolism leading to increased levels of androgens in
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