2016 - ER stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid by F & I

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2016 - ER stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid by F & I

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Liu H, Hou C, Zeng Q, Zhao L, Cui Y, Yu L, Wang L, Zhao Y, Nie J, Zhang B, Wang A - "Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide" Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 46:277-285 (2016)
DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.08.007
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 8916302083

Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats. After 8 months treatment, both single and co-exposure of the two microelements could raise the thyroid cells apoptosis. However, the expressions of IRE1-related factors were only increased in fluoride-alone and the combined groups. In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements.

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3.4. Effects of fluoride and/or iodide on serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, and
TSH in rats

At the end of exposure for 2 months, serum T3 and FT3 displayed no significant differences compared to the control (P > 0.05). After exposure for 8 months, serum T3 and FT3 were lower in the 10 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 and 20 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 groups than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Additionally, the serum T3 levels were lower in the 20 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 group than those in the 1.685 mg/L KIO3 and 20 mg/L NaF groups (P < 0.05) (Fig. 4A and B). At the end of exposure for 2 months, serum T4 and FT4 were significantly elevated in the 1.685 mg/L KIO3, 10 mg/L NaF, and 20 mg/L NaF groups compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). The 5 mg/L NaF group also displayed higher serum FT4 (P < 0.05), while the three combined groups displayed higher serum T4 and FT4, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In terms of serum T4 and FT4, the 10 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 and 20 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 groups were lower than the 5 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 groups (P < 0.05), while the 5 mg/L NaF + 1.685 mg/L KIO3 group was higher than the 1.685 mg/L KIO3 and 5 mg/L NaF groups (P < 0.05). At the end of exposure for 8 months, there were no significant differences in serum T4 or FT4 between groups (P > 0.05) (Fig. 4C and D).
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