A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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=> gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)


GGT levels are elevated in COVID-19 (Li et al., 2020; Gu et al., 2020).

Li M, Dong Y, Wang H, Guo W, Zhou H, Zhang Z, Tian C, Du K, Zhu R, Wang L, Zhao L, Fan H, Luo S, Hu D - "Cardiovascular disease potentially contributes to the progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19" Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis S0939-4753(20)30134-4 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.04.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32456948; PMCID: PMC7165120

Gu X, Li X, An X, Yang S, Wu S, Yang X, Wang H - "Elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase level identifies patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and predicts the length of hospital stay" J Clin Lab Anal - Jun 2:e23391 (2020) doi: 10.1002/jcla.23391. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32488888


Liu JL, Xia T, Yu YY, Sun XZ, Zhu Q, He W, Zhang M, Wang A - "The dose-effect relationship of water fluoride levels and renal damage in children" Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 34(3):287-8 (2005) Chinese. PMID: 16111031
"Urine NAG and gamma-GT activities significantly increased in dental fluorosis people from area of 2.58 mg/L fluoride in drinking water and in those two groups from area of 4.51 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. Moreover, there existed an obvious dose-effect relationship between the drinking water fluoride concentration and NAG and gamma-GT activity."

Xiong X, Liu J, He W, Xia T, He P, Chen X, Yang K, Wang A - "Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children" Environ Res 103(1):112-6 (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.008. Epub 2006 Jul 10. PMID: 16834990

Shashi A, Kumar M - "Clinical and biochemical evaluation of blood serum enzymes in osteofluorosis" Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 11(3):647-651 (2008)
"The patients of skeletal fluorosis were examined and compared with 24 age-matched controls for their serum enzymes activities of creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-amylase. The activity of CK and GGT was elevated significantly (p<0.001) in all age groups as compared to controls."

Kessabi M, Braun JP, Burgat-Sacaze V, Bénard P, Rico AG - "Comparison of sodium and stannous fluoride nephrotoxicity" Toxicol Lett 7(6):463-7 (1981) doi: 10.1016/0378-4274(81)90094-1. PMID: 6113698
"...both compounds produced early lesions of kidney tubule demonstrated by an intense increase of urine gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)."

Kessabi M, Hamliri A, Braun JP, Rico AG - "Experimental acute sodium fluoride poisoning in sheep: renal, hepatic, and metabolic effects" Fundam Appl Toxicol 5(6 Pt 1):1025-33 (1994) doi: 10.1016/0272-0590(85)90139-3. PMID: 2868958


Induction of GGT is mediated through activation of the ERK and p38MAPK pathways (Zhang et al., 2003).
SEE: viewtopic.php?f=66&t=1914

Zhang H, Dickinson DA, Liu RM, Forman HJ - "4-Hydroxynonenal increases gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase gene expression through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways" Free Radic Biol Med 38(4):463-71 (2003) doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.10.031. PMID: 15649648; PMCID: PMC2801023


Messarah M, Saoudi M, Boumendjel A, Boulakoud MS, Feki AE - "Oxidative stress induced by thyroid dysfunction in rat erythrocytes and heart" Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 31(1):33-41 (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2010.09.003. Epub 2010 Sep 15. PMID: 21787667
"Alteration of the antioxidant system in the hypo-/hyperthyroidism-induced rats was confirmed by the significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and a decline in glutathione (GSH) content in both tissues were detected in hyperthyroid group compared to controls."

Cattani D, Goulart PB, Cavalli VL, Winkelmann-Duarte E, Dos Santos AQ, Pierozan P, de Souza DF, Woehl VM, Fernandes MC, Silva FR, Gonçalves CA, Pessoa-Pureur R, Zamoner A - "Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats" Mol Cell Endocrinol 375(1-2):14-26 (2013) doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 May 18. PMID: 23693027

Domingues JT, Cattani D, Cesconetto PA, Nascimento de Almeida BA, Pierozan P, Dos Santos K, Razzera G, Mena Barreto Silva FR, Pessoa-Pureur R, Zamoner A - "Reverse T3 interacts with αvβ3 integrin receptor and restores enzyme activities in the hippocampus of hypothyroid developing rats: Insight on signaling mechanisms" Mol Cell Endocrinol 470:281-294 (2018) doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.11.013. Epub 2017 Nov 16. PMID: 29155306
"Using molecular docking analysis, we found rT3 interaction with αvβ3 integrin receptors, nongenomically activating signaling pathways (PKA, CaMKII, p38MAPK) that restored GGT activity."
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