Menstrual Changes

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Menstrual Changes

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Menstrual Changes
© 2021 PFPC

Some evidence exists that severely ill COVID-19 patients had longer menstrual cycles (Li et al., 2020).

A large number of menstrual changes have been recorded as a result of vaccinations (Male, 2021).

Of course, menstrual changes have long been observed in thyroid dysfunction (Krassas, 2000; Koutras, 1999).


COVID-19

Danesh L, Ali A, Aslam I, Mensah-Djan A - "The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on menstruation" Reprod Biomed Online. 2021 Aug 20:S1472-6483(21)00405-3. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2021.08.014. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34489182; PMCID: PMC8378059.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378059/

Li K, Chen G, Hou H, Liao Q, Chen J, Bai H, Lee S, Wang C, Li H, Cheng L, Ai J - "Analysis of sex hormones and menstruation in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age" Reprod Biomed Online 42(1):260-267 (2021) doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2020.09.020. Epub 2020 Sep 29. PMID: 33288478; PMCID: PMC7522626
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522626/

Alsaeedi FA, Gharib AF, Hassan AF, Alrehaili AA, Megli Althubiti R, Alharthi FM, Suleiman Alotaibi S, Mohammed Al Thomali A, Bakhuraysah MM, Alsalmi O, Ismail A - "Influence of COVID-19 infection/vaccination on menstrual regularity and hormonal function in Saudi females of reproductive age" Heliyon. 9(11):e22291 (2023). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22291
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38058640/


COVID-19 Vaccination

Petruk AO, Lytvak OO - "Clinical Profiles and Characteristics of Menstrual Dysfunction in Women After Suffering from COVID-19 or Vaccination" Wiad Lek 76(10):2252-2257 (2023). doi: 10.36740/WLek202310118
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37948722/
Ukrainian researchers reported on changes in menstrual cycle associated with thyroid dysfunction after COVID-19 vaccination.

Alsaeedi FA, Gharib AF, Hassan AF, Alrehaili AA, Megli Althubiti R, Alharthi FM, Suleiman Alotaibi S, Mohammed Al Thomali A, Bakhuraysah MM, Alsalmi O, Ismail A - "Influence of COVID-19 infection/vaccination on menstrual regularity and hormonal function in Saudi females of reproductive age" Heliyon. 9(11):e22291 (2023). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22291
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38058640/

Male V - "Menstrual changes after covid-19 vaccination" Editorial, BMJ 2021;374:n2211 (2021)
https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n2211


Fluoride

Hou JX, Yang YJ, Gong B, Li SH, Ding Z, Wen SB, Li SQ, Cheng XM, Cui LX, Ba Y - "The influence of high fluoride exposure in drinking water on endocrine hormone in female" Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(2):142-6 (2013)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23719105/

Zhao MX, Zhou GY, Zhu JY, Gong B, Hou JX, Zhou T, Duan LJ, Ding Z, Cui LX, Ba Y - "Fluoride Exposure, Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian Axis Hormones in Chinese Women" Biomed Environ Sci 28(9):696-700 (2015)
http://www.besjournal.com/en/article/do ... es2015.099

Wang Z, Dong S, Chen Q, Chen C, Xu Z, Dong Z - "Analysis of the MicroRNA Profile by Sequencing in Ovarian Granular Cells from Women Suffering Fluorosis with Reproductive Dysfunction" Biol Trace Elem Res 197(1):101-106 (2020)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31838738/

Malin AJ, Busgang SA, Garcia JC, et al. - "Fluoride Exposure and Age of Menarche: Potential Differences Among Adolescent Girls and Women in the United States" Expo Health 14:733–742 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-021-00448-y
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 21-00448-y

He B, Dong S, Chen Q, Dong Z, Chen C - "DNA Methylation Profiles of Ovarian Granular Cells from Fluorosis Female Patients Suffering Reproductive Dysfunctions" Biol Trace Elem Res 200(8):3529-3536 (2022). doi: 10.1007/s12011-021-02954-1
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34686994/


Gq/11

Bernard R, Thach L, Kamato D, Osman N, Little PJ - "Assessing the Role of Gαq/11 in Cellular Responses: An Analysis of Investigative Tools" Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology 04 (05) (2014)
https://www.longdom.org/open-access/ass ... 59-164.pdf

Evans J, Catalano RD, Morgan K, Critchley HO, Millar RP, Jabbour HN - "Prokineticin 1 signaling and gene regulation in early human pregnancy" Endocrinology 149(6):2877-87 (2008) doi: 10.1210/en.2007-1633. Epub 2008 Mar 13. PMID: 18339712; PMCID: PMC2696030.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18339712/


Thyroid

Urmi SJ, Begum SR, Fariduddin M, Begum SA, Mahmud T, Banu J, Chowdhury S, Khanam - "Hypothyroidism and its Effect on Menstrual Pattern and Fertility" Mymensingh Med J 24(4):765-9 (2015)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26620017/

Kakuno Y, Amino N, Kanoh M, Kawai M, Fujiwara M, Kimura M, Kamitani A, Saya K, Shakuta R, Nitta S, Hayashida Y, Kudo T, Kubota S, Miyauchi A - "Menstrual disturbances in various thyroid diseases" Endocr J 7(12):1017-22 (2010)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20938101/

Koutras DA - "Disturbances of menstruation in thyroid disease" Ann N Y Acad Sci 816:280-4 (1998)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9238278/

Krassas GE - "Thyroid disease and female reproduction" Fertil Steril 74(6):1063-70 (2000).
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11119728/

Poppe K, Velkeniers B, Glinoer D - "Thyroid disease and female reproduction" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 66(3):309-21 (2007)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17302862/



SEE also:

Obesity. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=2757
State of the Mother. viewforum.php?f=48
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