GABA

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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GABA

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GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)
© 2021 PFPC

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring amino acid that works as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

GABA administration prevents severe illness and death following coronavirus infection in mice (Tian et al., 2021).

GABA also protects against fluoride poisoning in mice (Yang et al., 2019).

- It is of note that Ivermectin activates the GABA system, inducing higher GABA levels (Moreira et al., 2017).


COVID-19

Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Ferrazzoli D, Romanello R, Ortelli P, Saltuari L, D'Acunto A, Porrazzini F, Ajello V, Oliviero A, Kofler M, Koch G - "Intracortical GABAergic dysfunction in patients with fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome after COVID-19" Clin Neurophysiol 132(5):1138-1143 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954785/
"The present study documents for the first time reduced GABAergic inhibition in the M1 in patients who recovered from COVID-19 with neurological complications and manifested fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome."

Tian J, Middleton B, Kaufman DL - "GABAA-Receptor Agonists Limit Pneumonitis and Death in Murine Coronavirus-Infected Mice" Viruses 13(6):966 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34071034/


Fluoride

Yang H, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Li P - "Analysis of the protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid during fluoride-induced hypothyroidism in male Kunming mice" Pharm Biol 57(1):29-37 (2019)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346718/

Cao Q, Wang J, Hao Y, Zhao F, Fu R, Yu Y, Wang J, Niu R, Bian S, Sun Z - "Exercise Ameliorates Fluoride-induced Anxiety- and Depression-like Behavior in Mice: Role of GABA" Biol Trace Elem Res (2021) doi: 10.1007/s12011-021-02678-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33825162.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33825162/

Xie Chun, Yang Xiaoxue, Wu Yu, Zhang G Hua, Wei Yan, Zhang Yue, Pan Jigang -"Effect of Combined Fluorine and Aluminum Exposure during Pregnancy and Lactation on Spatial Learning and Memory Ability and Amino Acid Neurotransmitters in Filial Rats" Journal of Environmental Hygiene 5(4): 321-327 (2015)
http://html.rhhz.net/hjwsxzz/html/52505.htm
"The decrease of Glu and Asp and the increase of GABA in hippocampus might participate in the mechanisms for combined fluorine and aluminum exposure on the damage of spatial learning and memory ability in filial rats."


Gq/11

Sil'kis IG - "Possible mechanisms for orexin effects on the functioning of the hippocampus and spatial learning (analytical review)" Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova 62(4):389-400 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23035556/

Sil'kis IG - "A possible mechanism of the influence of neuromodulators and modifiable inhibition on long-term potentiation and long-term depression of excitatory inputs to main hippocampal neurons" Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova 52(4):392-405 (2002)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12391866/


Thyroid

Yang H, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Li P - "Analysis of the protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid during fluoride-induced hypothyroidism in male Kunming mice" Pharm Biol 57(1):29-37 (2019)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346718/

Liu B, Wang Z, Lin L, Yang H, Gao F, Gong T, Edden RAE, Wang G - " Brain GABA+ changes in primary hypothyroidism patients before and after levothyroxine treatment: A longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy study" Neuroimage Clin 28:102473 (2020)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33395967/

Westergard T, Salari R, Martin JV, Brannigan G - "Interactions of L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine [corrected], Allopregnanolone, and Ivermectin with the GABAA Receptor: Evidence for Overlapping Intersubunit Binding Modes" PLoS One 10(9):e0139072 (2015) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139072. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142514. PMID: 26421724; PMCID: PMC4589331.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589331/

Yang H, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Li P - "Analysis of the protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid during fluoride-induced hypothyroidism in male Kunming mice" Pharm Biol 57(1):29-37 (2019)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346718/


TSH

Wiens SC, Trudeau VL - "Thyroid hormone and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interactions in neuroendocrine systems" Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 144(3):332-44 (2006)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16527506/

Ahrén B - "GABA inhibits thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse" Thyroidology 1(3):105-8 (1989)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2484871/


Ivermectin

Westergard T, Salari R, Martin JV, Brannigan G - "Interactions of L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine [corrected], Allopregnanolone, and Ivermectin with the GABAA Receptor: Evidence for Overlapping Intersubunit Binding Modes" PLoS One 10(9):e0139072 (2015) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139072. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142514. PMID: 26421724; PMCID: PMC4589331.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589331/

Lamassiaude N, Toubate B, Neveu C, Charnet P, Dupuy C, Debierre-Grockiego F, Dimier-Poisson I, Charvet CL - "The molecular targets of ivermectin and lotilaner in the human louse Pediculus humanus humanus: New prospects for the treatment of pediculosis" PLoS Pathog 17(2):e1008863 (2021)
https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens ... at.1008863

Tabary M, Aryannejad A, Noroozi N, Tavangar SM, Mohammad Jafari R, Araghi F, Dadkhahfar S, Dehpour AR. - "Ivermectin Increases Random-Pattern Skin Flap Survival in Rats: The Novel Role of GABAergic System" J Surg Res 259:431-441 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33069391/

Moreira N, Sandini TM, Reis-Silva TM, Navas-Suáresz P, Auada AVV, Lebrun I, Flório JC, Bernardi MM, Spinosa HS - "Ivermectin reduces motor coordination, serum testosterone, and central neurotransmitter levels but does not affect sexual motivation in male rats" Reprod Toxicol 74:195-203 (2017)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29055807/
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