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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of physiologic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, dysregulated glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure (Kassi et al., 2011).
Patients with MetS have been estimated to have up to 10 times greater risk of death when suffering from COVID-19 (Bornstein et al., 2020; Vahey et al., 2021; etc).
MetS is closely correlated to serum TSH levels.
The prevalence of MetS and most of its components increases with an elevation of TSH levels - even within the "normal" reference range (Li et al., 2020; Ahirwa et al., 2017; Keshkin et al., 2021; Ruhla et al., 2010; Boggio et al., 2014).
Fluoride is a TSH analogue. It is, therefore, no surprise that MetS is also seen in fluoride poisoning (Schneider-Matyka et al., 2021; Liu et al., 2020).
- Kassi E, Pervanidou P, Kaltsas G, Chrousos G - "Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies" BMC Med 9:48 (2011)
Bornstein SR, Dalan R, Hopkins D, Mingrone G, Boehm BO - "Endocrine and metabolic link to coronavirus infection" Nat Rev Endocrinol 16(6):297-298 (2020)
Vahey GM, McDonald E, Marshall K, Martin SW, Chun H, Herlihy R, Tate JE, Kawasaki B, Midgley CM, Alden N, Killerby ME, Staples JE; Colorado Investigation Team - "Risk factors for hospitalization among persons with COVID-19-Colorado" PLoS One 16(9):e0256917 (2021)
Li R, Tang Y, Liang M, Ding J - "Liver injury in COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome-a narrative review" Ann Palliat Med 10(7):8264-8270 (2021) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34353107/
Westheim AJF, Bitorina AV, Theys J, Shiri-Sverdlov R - "COVID-19 infection, progression, and vaccination: Focus on obesity and related metabolic disturbance" Obes Rev 22(10):e13313 (2021)
Korean Society for the Study of Obesity Obesity, Lee CBL - "Public Statement on the Importance of Prevention and Management of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome during the COVID COVID-19 Pandemic" J Obes Metab Syndr. 2021 Sep 15. doi: 10.7570/jomes21064. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34521778.
https://www.jomes.org/journal/view.html ... mes21064#n
Schneider-Matyka D, Gutowska I, Panczyk M, Grochans E, Szkup M- "Elevated serum fluoride levels in perimenopausal women are related to the components of metabolic syndrome" European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 25:5474-5482 (2021)
https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-co ... 4-5482.pdf
Liu Y, Téllez-Rojo M, Sánchez BN, Ettinger AS, Osorio-Yáñez C, Solano M, Hu H, Peterson KE - "Association between fluoride exposure and cardiometabolic risk in peripubertal Mexican children" Environ Int 134:105302 (2020)
Gq/11 is involved in all aspects of thyroid metabolism. TSHr activates Gq/11 at slightly elevated levels.
Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Van Sande J, Spicher K, Schultz G, Dumont JE - "The human thyrotropin receptor activates G-proteins Gs and Gq/11" J Biol Chem 269(19):13733-5 (1994)
Meng Z, Liu M, Zhang Q, Liu L, Song K, Tan J, Jia Q, Zhang G, Wang R, He Y, Ren X, Zhu M, He Q, Wang S, Li X, Hu T, Liu N, Upadhyaya A, Zhou P, Zhang J - "Gender and Age Impacts on the Association Between Thyroid Function and Metabolic Syndrome" in Chinese Medicine (Baltimore) 94(50):e2193 (2015)
Aleksic M, Kalezic A, Saso L, Jankovic A, Korac B, Korac A - "The Unity of Redox and Structural Remodeling of Brown Adipose Tissue in Hypothyroidism" Antioxidants (Basel) 10(4):591 (2021) doi: 10.3390/antiox10040591. PMID: 33921249; PMCID: PMC8068806.
Kim HJ, Park SJ, Park HK, Byun DW, Suh K, Yoo MHv - "Thyroid Autoimmunity and Metabolic Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study" Eur J Endocrinol EJE-21-0634.R2 (2021)
Xiao Y, Mao J, Mao X, Wang Q, Li X, Chen G, Guo L, Huang H, Mu Y, Xu S, Liu C - "Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with thyroid volume in adolescents" BMC Endocr Disord 21(1):176 (2021)
Ahirwar AK, Singh A, Jain A, Patra SK, Goswami B, Bhatnagar MK, Bhattacharjee J - "Raised TSH is associated with endothelial dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome: A case control study" Rom J Intern Med 55(4):212-221 (2017)
Boggio A, Muzio F, Fiscella M, Sommariva D, Branchi A - "Is thyroid-stimulating hormone within the normal reference range a risk factor for atherosclerosis in women?" Intern Emerg Med 9(1):51-7 (2014)
Keskin H, Cadirci K, Gungor K, Karaaslan T, Usta T, Ozkeskin A, Musayeva A, Yesildal F, Isman F, Zengin HY - "Association between TSH Values and GFR Levels in Euthyroid Cases with Metabolic Syndrome" Int J Endocrinol 2021:8891972 (2021)
"Increased TSH even in the normal range was associated with eGFR after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), especially in females. The high age (b = -0.160, p=0.005), high BMI (b = -0.134, p=0.020), high TSH (b = -0.380, p < 0.01), and high uric acid (b = -0.348, p < 0.01) were found as significant predictors of the eGFR in MetS patients."
Li M, Zhang X, Zhou X, Han X, Zhang R, Fu Z, Wang L, Gao Y, Li Y, Ji L - "The Association Between Serum Thyrotropin Within the Reference Range and Metabolic Syndrome in a Community-Based Chinese Population" Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 13:2001-2011 (2020)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... /32606859/
"The prevalence of MetS and most of its components increased in the higher TSH group in euthyroid Chinese population."
Ruhla S, Weickert MO, Arafat AM, Osterhoff M, Isken F, Spranger J, Schöfl C, Pfeiffer AF, Möhlig M - "A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) May;72(5):696-701 (2010)
Uric Acid. viewtopic.php?f=68&t=3539
Diacylglycerol (DAG). viewtopic.php?f=66&t=2475