Myelitis/MS/CNS Inflammation

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Myelitis/MS/CNS Inflammation

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Myelitis/MS/CNS Inflammation
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Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as myelitis and encephalitis, have been reported in COVID-19 patients and as a result of vaccination (Sullivan & Fischer, 2021; Khayat-Khoei et al., 2021; Kania et al., 2021).


COVID-19

Sullivan BN, Fischer T - "Age-Associated Neurological Complications of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Front Aging Neurosci 13:653694 (2021) doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.653694. PMID: 34408638; PMCID: PMC8366271.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366271/

Maiese A, Manetti AC, Bosetti C, Del Duca F, La Russa R, Frati P, Di Paolo M, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V - "SARS-CoV-2 and the brain: A review of the current knowledge on neuropathology in COVID-19" Brain Pathol. 2021 Aug 13:e13013. doi: 10.1111/bpa.13013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34390282
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34390282/

Wang Y, Wang Y, Huo L, Li Q, Chen J, Wang H - "SARS-CoV-2-associated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a systematic review of the literature" J Neurol. 2021 Aug 30:1–22. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10771-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34459986; PMCID: PMC8403692.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34459986/

Paul BD, Lemle MD, Komaroff AL, Snyder SH - "Redox imbalance links COVID-19 and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118(34):e2024358118 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34400495/


Vaccination

"Our case series adds to other recently published reports of the first manifestation of MS after the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine [33], MS relapse 3 days after the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine [34], MS relapse after the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine [35], and four cases of acute myelitis after the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine [29, 30, 32]." (Khayat-Khoei et a., 2021)
Khayat-Khoei M, Bhattacharyya S, Katz J, Harrison D, Tauhid S, Bruso P, Houtchens MK, Edwards KR, Bakshi R - "COVID-19 mRNA vaccination leading to CNS inflammation: a case series" J Neurol. 2021 Sep 4. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10780-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34480607
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 21-10780-7

Kania K, Ambrosius W, Tokarz Kupczyk E, Kozubski W - "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a patient vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2" Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2021 Sep 4. doi: 10.1002/acn3.51447. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34480527
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34480527/

Tahir N, Koorapati G, Prasad S, Jeelani HM, Sherchan R, Shrestha J, Shayuk M - "SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination-Induced Transverse Myelitis" Cureus Jul 13(7):e16624 (2021) doi: 10.7759/cureus.16624. PMID: 34458035; PMCID: PMC8384391
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384391/


Fluoride

Dec K, Łukomska A, Maciejewska D, Jakubczyk K, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Chlubek D, Wąsik A, Gutowska I - "The Influence of Fluorine on the Disturbances of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System" Biol Trace Elem Res 177(2):224-234 (2017)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27787813/

Zhang M, Wang A, He W, He P, Xu B, Xia T, Chen X, Yang K - "Effects of fluoride on the expression of NCAM, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons" Toxicology 236(3):208-16 (2007)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17537562/

Valdez-Jiménez L, Soria Fregozo C, Miranda Beltrán ML, Gutiérrez Coronado O, Pérez Vega MI - "Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system" Neurologia 26(5):297-300 (2011)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21255877/

Shen Q, Tian R, Li H, Xu T, Xia Y - "White matter injury of spinal cord in rats with chronic fluorosis and recovery after defluoridation" Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine 94(15):1189-92 (2014)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24924722/

Xin J, Zeng D, Wang H, Sun N, Khalique A, Zhao Y, Wu L, Pan K, Jing B, Ni X - "Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 improves intestinal environment against fluoride-induced memory impairment in mice-a study based on the gut-brain axis hypothesis" PeerJ 8:e10125 (2020)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33083147/

Webb-Peploe MM, Bradley WG - "Endemic fluorosis with neurological complications in a Hampshire man" J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 29:577 (1966)
https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/jnnp/29/6/577.full.pdf

Ayele BA, Godebo TR, Tekle-Haimanot R, Yifru YM - "Neuro-medical manifestations of fluorosis in populations living in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley" Environ Geochem Health. 2021 Jun 26. doi: 10.1007/s10653-021-01016-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34173906
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34173906/

Guan ZZ, Wang YN, Xiao KQ, Dai DY, Chen YH, Liu JL, Sindelar P, Dallner G - "Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain" Neurotoxicol Teratol 20(5):537-42 (1998)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9761592/

Niu R, Chen H, Manthari RK, Sun Z, Wang J, Zhang J, Wang J - "Effects of fluoride on synapse morphology and myelin damage in mouse hippocampus" Chemosphere 194:628-633 (2018)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29241138/

See also 0rganophosphates: Lancaster MC - "A note on the demyelination produced in hens by dialkylfluoridates" Br J Pharmacol Chemother 15(2):279-81 (1960) doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1960.tb01244.x. PMID: 14413744; PMCID: PMC1481926
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14413744/


Gq/11

Lai W, Cai Y, Zhou J, Chen S, Qin C, Yang C, Liu J, Xie X, Du C - "Deficiency of the G protein Gαq ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with impaired DC-derived IL-6 production and Th17 differentiation" Cell Mol Immunol 14(6):557-567 (2017)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518818/

Partridge JG - "Utilizing GCaMP transgenic mice to monitor endogenous Gq/11-coupled receptors" Front Pharmacol 6:42 (2015)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25805995/

Inoue K - "ATP receptors in the central nervous system" Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 110(4):173-82 (1997) Japanese. doi: 10.1254/fpj.110.173. PMID: 9396022.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9396022/


Thyroid
"Our findings show that ATM [acute transverse myelitis] patients had lower levels of TSH and FT3 and higher levels of FT4 and FT4/FT3 compared with healthy controls, whether male or female. Moreover, levels of TSH and FT3 in patients with ATM were inversely correlated with disease severity measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Variations in TH level may represent the oxidative status and are surrogate biomarkers of the incidence and severity of ATM." (Weng et al., 2017)
Weng Y, Lin H, Ye X, Xie D, Chen Z, Zheng J, Su Z, Xie H, Zhang X, Li X - "Thyroid hormone level is associated with the frequency and severity of acute transverse myelitis" Neuroreport 28(5):292-297 (2017)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28240719/

Ruiz-Núñez B, Tarasse R, Vogelaar EF, Janneke Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FAJ - "Higher Prevalence of 'Low T3 Syndrome' in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case-Control Study" Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 9:97 (2018)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29615976/

Tomic S, Brkic S, Lendak D, Maric D, Medic Stojanoska M, Novakov Mikic A. - "Neuroendocrine disorder in chronic fatigue syndrome" Turk J Med Sci. 47(4):1097-1103 (2017)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29154201/
Although basal serum T4, T3, and TSH levels were normal in all subjects, concentrations of T3 were significantly lower in the CFS group.


TSH

Long Y, Zheng Y, Chen M, Zhang B, Gao C, Shan F, Yang N, Fan Y - "Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and anti-thyroglobulin antibody are independently associated with lesions in spinal cord in central nervous system demyelinating diseases" PLoS One 9(8):e100672 (2014)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25093326/

Weng Y, Lin H, Ye X, Xie D, Chen Z, Zheng J, Su Z, Xie H, Zhang X, Li X - "Thyroid hormone level is associated with the frequency and severity of acute transverse myelitis" Neuroreport 28(5):292-297 (2017)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28240719/
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