VCAM-1 (CD106)

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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VCAM-1 (CD106)

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Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1)
© 2021 PFPC

VCAM-1 functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It modulates blood vessel endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and increases the strength of cell adhesion (Rafat et al., 2012).
  • Rafat M, Rotenstein LS, Hu JL, Auguste DT - "Engineered endothelial cell adhesion via VCAM1 and E-selectin antibody-presenting alginate hydrogels" Acta Biomater 8(7):2697-703 (2012)

VCAM-1 is over-expressed in COVID-19, in vaccine-induced thrombotic thombocytopenia (VITT), as well as in fluoride poisoning.


Keskinidou C, Vassiliou AG, Zacharis A, Jahaj E, Gallos P, Dimopoulou I, Orfanos SE, Kotanidou A - "Endothelial, Immunothrombotic, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Risk of Mortality in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: The Role of Dexamethasone" Diagnostics (Basel) 11(7):1249. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11071249 (2021)

de Bruin S, Bos LD, van Roon MA, Tuip-de Boer AM, Schuurman AR, Koel-Simmelinck MJA, Bogaard HJ, Tuinman PR, van Agtmael MA, Hamann J, Teunissen CE, Wiersinga WJ, Koos Zwinderman AH, Brouwer MC, van de Beek D, Vlaar APJ; Amsterdam UMC COVID-19 Biobank Investigators - "Clinical features and prognostic factors in Covid-19: A prospective cohort study" EBioMedicine 67:103378 (2021)


Pomara C, Sessa F, Ciaccio M, Dieli F, Esposito M, Garozzo SF, Giarratano A, Prati D, Rappa F, Salerno M, Tripodo C, Zamboni P, Mannucci PM - "Post-mortem findings in vaccine-induced thrombotic thombocytopenia" Haematologica 106(
8):2291-2293 (2021) ... 062291.pdf
"Immunohistochemistry highlighted the expression of the adhesion molecule VICAM-1 (CD106) and of the complement components C1r and C4d on the vascular endothelial surface in the microcirculation of the heart, lung, liver, kidney and ileum."

Tsilingiris D, Vallianou NG, Karampela I, Dalamaga M - "Vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia: The shady chapter of a success story" Metabol Open 11:100101 (2021)


VCAM-1 expression is increased in fluoride poisoning, in animals and humans (Jiménez-Córdova et al., 2019; Alhusaini et al., 2018).

Jiménez-Córdova MI, González-Horta C, Ayllón-Vergara JC, Arreola-Mendoza L, Aguilar-Madrid G, Villareal-Vega EE, Barrera-Hernández Á, Barbier OC, Del Razo LM - "Evaluation of vascular and kidney injury biomarkers in Mexican children exposed to inorganic fluoride" Environ Res 169:220-228 (2019)
"In robust multiple linear regression models, urinary F was positively associated with ... VCAM-1 (β = 111.1, p = 0.019), ICAM-1 (β = 57, p = 0.032) and cIMT (β = 0.01, p = 0.032)...these results suggest that F exposure is related to early vascular alterations, which may increase the susceptibility of cardiovascular diseases in adult life."

Alhusaini AM, Faddah LM, El Orabi NF, Hasan IH - "Role of Some Natural Antioxidants in the Modulation of Some Proteins Expressions against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Renal Injury" Biomed Res Int 2018:5614803 (2018)

Ma Y, Ma Z, Yin S, Yan X, Wang J - "Arsenic and fluoride induce apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells" Chemosphere 167:454-461 (2017)


Bayat H, Xu S, Pimentel D, Cohen RA, Jiang B - "Activation of thromboxane receptor upregulates interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced VCAM-1 expression through JNK signaling" Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28(1):127-34 (2008) ... 107.150250
  • SEE:

    Kinsella BT, O'Mahony DJ, Fitzgerald GA - "The human thromboxane A2 receptor alpha isoform (TP alpha) functionally couples to the G proteins Gq and G11 in vivo and is activated by the isoprostane 8-epi prostaglandin F2 alpha" J Pharmacol Exp Ther 281(2):957-64 (1997)
Albarrán-Juárez J, Iring A, Wang S, Joseph S, Grimm M, Strilic B, Wettschureck N, Althoff TF, Offermanns S - "Piezo1 and Gq/G11 promote endothelial inflammation depending on flow pattern and integrin activation" J Exp Med 215(10):2655-2672 (2018)
"Laminar flow-induced activation of this pathway has been shown to be dependent on the cation channel Piezo1, which mediates flow-induced release of ATP from endothelial cells, resulting in the activation of the Gq/G11-coupled purinergic P2Y2 receptor (Wang et al., 2015, 2016)."


Hashemipour M, Dehkordi EH, Javanmard SH, Hovsepian S, Moaddab MH, Kelishadi R, Aghanouri Z, Tavalaian H, Salekardestani M, Amini M - "Von Willebrand factor, and soluble intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules as indices of endothelial activation in patients with congenital hypothyroidism" Horm Res Paediatr 76(2):99-103 (2011)
"The mean ICAM and VCAM were higher in CH patients than in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean ICAM and VCAM decreased significantly after treatment in CH patients (p < 0.05)."

Modzelewska A, Szelachowska M, Zonenberg A, Abdelrazek S, Nikołajuk A, Górska M - "Selected markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism" Endokrynol Pol 57(3):202-10 (2006)
" Significance of VCAM-1 values were found in the patients with subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism compared to the control (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively)."

Wenisch C, Myskiw D, Gessl A, Graninger W - "Circulating selectins, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in hyperthyroidism" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80(7):2122-6 (1995)


Yan Y, Jiang F, Lai Y, Wang H, Liu A, Wang C, Zhang Y, Teng W, Shan Z - "Effect of Thyrotropin on Osteopontin, Integrin αvβ3, and VCAM-1 in the Endothelium via Activation of Akt" Int J Mol Sci 17(9):1484 (2016)
"In vitro, results showed that different concentration and time gradients of TSH stimulation could increase the expression of OPN, VCAM-1, and integrin αvβ₃, and this was accompanied by extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and Akt activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)."

Milani AT, Khadem-Ansari MH, Rasmi Y - "Effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone on adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells" Res Pharm Sci 13(6):546-556 (2018)
"Considering the multiple actions of TSH, it could be concluded that TSH plays a controversial role in atherogenesis by anti-inflammatory effects and on the other side, angiogenesis and leukocyte adhesion induction which is related to vascular cell proliferation."
  • SEE ALSO: Re - Obesity
    Rijks JM, Plat J, Dorenbos E, Penders B, Gerver WM, Vreugdenhil ACE - "Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102(6):2051-2058 (2017)


PECAM-1. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=3521
NF-κB. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=1888&p=1946#p1946
TNF-alpha. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=1895
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