Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)

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Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)
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Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a general indicator of acute or chronic hepatic damage. LDH levels are significantly higher in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 (Liang et al., 2020; Yang et al. 2021).


COVID-19

Liang W, Yao J, Chen A, Lv Q, Zanin M, Liu J, Wong S, Li Y, Lu J, Liang H, Chen G, Guo H, Guo J, Zhou R, Ou L, Zhou N, Chen H, Yang F, Han X, Huan W, Tang W, Guan W, Chen Z, Zhao Y, Sang L, Xu Y, Wang W, Li S, Lu L, Zhang N, Zhong N, Huang J, He J - "Early triage of critically ill COVID-19 patients using deep learning" Nat Commun 11(1):3543 (2020)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363899/

Kumar A, Sepolia S, Shilpa RH, Rezayani G, Kumari S, Aastha, Gupta S - "Role of Hematological and Immunological Parameters in COVID-19 Patients" J Pharm Bioallied Sci 13(2):238-243 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291115/

Yang Q, Li J, Zhang Z, Wu X, Liao T, Yu S, You Z, Hou X, Ye J, Liu G, Ma S, Xie G, Zhou Y, Li M, Wu M, Feng Y, Wang W, Li L, Xie D, Hu Y, Liu X, Wang B, Zhao S, Li L, Luo C, Tang T, Wu H, Hu T, Yang G, Luo B, Li L, Yang X, Li Q, Xu Z, Wu H, Sun J - "Clinical characteristics and a decision tree model to predict death outcome in severe COVID-19 patients" BMC Infect Dis 21(1):783 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... e_6478.pdf

Jin Z, Zheng M, Shi J, Ye X, Cheng F, Chen QL, Huang J, Jiang XG - "Correlation Analysis Between Serum Uric Acid, Prealbumin Level, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Severity of COVID-19" Front Mol Biosci 8:615837 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34327212/


Fluoride
"However, the activities of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)...in children with dental fluorosis and having water fluoride of 2.15-2.96 mg/L and in children having water fluoride of 3.15-5.69 mg/L regardless of dental fluorosis were significantly higher than children exposed to water fluoride of 0.61-0.87 mg/L in a dose-response manner." (Xiong et al., 2007)
Xiong X, Liu J, He W, Xia T, He P, Chen X, Yang K, Wang A - "Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children" Environ Res 103(1):112-6 (2007)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16834990/

Azab A, Albasha M, Jbireal J, Adwas A - "Sodium Fluoride Induces Hepato-Renal Oxidative Stress and Pathophysiological Changes in Experimental Animals" Open Journal of Apoptosis 7:1-23 (2018) doi: 10.4236/ojapo.2018.71001.
https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinfo ... erid=84240


Gq/11
"Up-regulation of Gq/11 protein expression in the lung, brain, heart, kidney, liver and small intestine may induce abnormal activity of phosphatidyl inositol signal transduction and thus plays a role in the production of multiple organ injury during ARDS.

A positive correlation between the change in G alpha q/11 protein expression and LDH in these organs (r=0.584, P<0.05) was found." (Zhang et al., 2010)
Zhang L, Leifate B, Kelala A - "The dynamic alteration in Gq/11 protein expression in multiple organs during acute respiratory distress syndrome in rat" Chinese Critical Care Medicine 22(8):477-81 (2010)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20804650/

Jialili A, Abasi K, Maimaitizunong, Zhang L, Li XJ - "Influence of propofol on Gq/11 protein in kidney during acute respiratory distress syndrome" Chinese Critical Care Medicine 18(12):724-6 (2006)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17166350/


Thyroid
"The significant elevation in serum CK and LDH activities indicates that these can be used as parameters for screening hypothyroid patients but not hyperthyroid patients." (McGrowder et al., 2011)
McGrowder DA, Fraser YP, Gordon L, Crawford TV, Rawlins JM - "Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with thyroid disorders" Niger J Clin Pract 14(4):454-9 (2011)

Johari TY, Ghoneim MA, Moselhy SS - "Thyroid profile and LDH Isoenzymes as prognostic biomarkers for diabetic and/or obese subjects" Afr Health Sci 18(3):697-706 (2018)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307009/

Aoki S, Hoshi K, Kawakami J, Sato K, Sato W, Satoh K, Mori K, Sugawara A, Nakagawa Y, Yoshida K - "Assisting the diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism with pattern recognition methods, making use of a set of routine tests, and their multiple correlation with total T4" Biomed Pharmacother 66(3):195-205 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22405578/
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