IRE1 - Endoplasmic Reticulum

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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IRE1 - Endoplasmic Reticulum

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Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1)
© 2021 PFPC


"Therefore, targeting the RNAase activity of IRE1, could potentially be an ideal approach to modulate Covid-19 infection and pathogenesis via modulation of the secretome of macrophages." (Sureda et al., 2020)

Sureda A, Alizadeh J, Nabavi SF, Berindan-Neagoe I, Cismaru CA, Jeandet P, Łos MJ, Clementi E, Nabavi SM, Ghavami S - "Endoplasmic reticulum as a potential therapeutic target for covid-19 infection management?" Eur J Pharmacol 882:173288 (2020)

Wang Y, Huang J, Sun Y, Stubbs D, He J, Li W, Wang F, Liu Z, Ruzicka JA, Taylor EW, Rayman MP, Wan X, Zhang J - "SARS-CoV-2 suppresses mRNA expression of selenoproteins associated with ferroptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA synthesis" Food Chem Toxicol 153:112286 (2021)

Fluoride & Thyroid

Liu H, Hou C, Zeng Q, Zhao L, Cui Y, Yu L, Wang L, Zhao Y, Nie J, Zhang B, Wang A - "Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide" Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 46:277-285 (2016) ... 8916302083

Liu H, Zeng Q, Cui Y, Yu L, Zhao L, Hou C, Zhang S, Zhang L, Fu G, Liu Y, Jiang C, Chen X, Wang A - "The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity" Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 38(1):332-40 (2014)

Yu LY, Cui YS, Liu HL - "Effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in thyroid injury caused by fluoride in rat" Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 52(11):1182-1187 (2018) Chinese.

Liu H, Zeng Q, Cui Y, Zhao L, Zhang L, Fu G, Hou C, Zhang S, Yu L, Jiang C, Wang Z, Chen X, Wang A - "The role of the IRE1 pathway in excessive iodide- and/or fluoride-induced apoptosis in Nthy-ori 3-1 cells in vitro" Toxicol Lett 224(3):341-8 (2014)

Yu Linyu - "The role of IRE1 pathway in rat thyroid toxicity induced by high fluoride and/or high iodine" (2014)
Tianjin University, Master's Thesis


Xu C, Zhou L, Wu K, Li Y, Xu J, Jiang D, Gao L - "Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance Are Induced via the IRE1α/XBP-1 Pathway in Subclinical Hypothyroidism" Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 10:303 (2019)

Jo S, Fonseca TL, Bocco BMLC, Fernandes GW, McAninch EA, Bolin AP, Da Conceição RR, Werneck-de-Castro JP, Ignacio DL, Egri P, Németh D, Fekete C, Bernardi MM, Leitch VD, Mannan NS, Curry KF, Butterfield NC, Bassett JHD, Williams GR, Gereben B, Ribeiro MO, Bianco AC - "Type 2 deiodinase polymorphism causes ER stress and hypothyroidism in the brain" J Clin Invest 129(1):230-245 (2019)


Hsu YC, Ip MM - "Conjugated linoleic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse mammary tumor cells is mediated by both G protein coupled receptor-dependent activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and by oxidative stress" Cell Signal 23(12):2013-20 (2011)
"This suggests that t10,c12-CLA may exert its apoptotic effect by stimulating GPCR through Gα(q) signaling, activation of phosphatidylinositol-PLC, followed by binding of the PLC-generated IP(3) to its receptor on the ER, triggering Ca(2+) release from the ER and finally stimulating the CaMKK-AMPK pathway."

Zuo S, Kong D, Wang C, Liu J, Wang Y, Wan Q, Yan S, Zhang J, Tang J, Zhang Q, Lyu L, Li X, Shan Z, Qian L, Shen Y, Yu Y - "CRTH2 promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through m-calpain" EMBO Mol Med 10(3):e8237 (2018)

Slepak TI, Tang M, Slepak VZ, Lai K - " Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in a novel Classic Galactosemia model" Mol Genet Metab 92(1-2):78-87 (2007)
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