Obesity

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Obesity

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Obesity
©2020 PFPC

Numerous studies have shown that people with obesity are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 (Stefan et al, 2020; Scheen, 2017).

The mean TSH level in obese individuals is thought to be 0.8–2.0 mU/L higher than that in nonobese individuals (Boutin et al., 2016). Slightly elevated TSH levels (1 mU/L to 10 mU/L) activate Gq/11 (Allgeier et al., 1994).

COVID-19

Stefan N, Birkenfeld AL, Schulze MB, Ludwig DS - "Obesity and impaired metabolic health in patients with COVID-19" Nat Rev Endocrinol 16(7):341-342 (2020)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32327737/

Scheen AJ. Obésité et risque de COVID-19 sévère [Obesity and risk of severe COVID-19]. Rev Med Suisse 16(695):1115-1119 (2020) French
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32462841/

Fluoride

Kurdi MS - "Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications" Indian J Anaesth 60(3):157-62 (2016)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27053777/

Liu L, Wang M, Li Y, Liu H, Hou C, Zeng Q, Li P, Zhao Q, Dong L, Yu X, Liu L, Zhang S, Wang A - "Low-to-moderate fluoride exposure in relation to overweight and obesity among school-age children in China" Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 183:109558 (2019)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31509932/

Samuelson PN, Merin RG, Taves DR, Freeman RB, Calimlim JF, Kumazawa T - "Toxicity following methoxyflurane anaesthesia. IV. The role of obesity and the effect of low dose anaesthesia on fluoride metabolism and renal function" Can Anaesth Soc J 23(5):465-79 (1976)

Gq/11

Klepac K, Kilić A, Gnad T, Brown LM, Herrmann B, Wilderman A, Balkow A, Glöde A, Simon K, Lidell ME, Betz MJ, Enerbäck S, Wess J, Freichel M, Blüher M, König G, Kostenis E, Insel PA, Pfeifer A - "The Gq signalling pathway inhibits brown and beige adipose tissue" Nat Commun 7:10895 (2016)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786868/

Thyroid

Pearce EN - "Thyroid hormone and obesity" Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 19(5):408-13 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22931855/
"In large population studies, even among euthyroid individuals, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is typically positively associated with body weight and BMI."

TSH
"Obese individuals often have increased leptin in the circulation, which reduces the formation of triiodothyronine by suppressing the effect of type II deiodinase on the paraventricular nucleus TRH neurons in the hypothalamus. This increase in TRH stimulates the secretion of TSH in the hypophysis. The mean TSH level in obese individuals is 0.8–2.0 mU/L higher than that in nonobese individuals. Over time, this slight elevation can cause an increase in the incidence of goiter, nodular goiter, and papillary thyroid cancer [26, 27]." (Boutin et al., 2016)
Boutin A, Neumann S, Gershengorn MC - "Multiple Transduction Pathways Mediate Thyrotropin Receptor Signaling in Preosteoblast-Like Cells" Endocrinology. 157(5):2173-81 (2016)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artic

Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Van Sande J, Spicher K, Schultz G, Dumont JE - "The human thyrotropin receptor activates G-proteins Gs and Gq/11" J Biol Chem 269(19):13733‐13735 (1994)
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