RAGE

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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RAGE

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Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE)
©2020 PFPC

COVID-19

It has been proposed that RAGE play a pivotal role in COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS, particularly in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (De Francesco et al., 2020).

De Francesco EM, Vella V, Belfiore A - "COVID-19 and Diabetes: The Importance of Controlling RAGE" Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 11:526 (2020)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375019/

Fluoride

Zhang KL, Lou DD, Guan ZZ - "Activation of the AGE/RAGE system in the brains of rats and in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high level of fluoride might connect to oxidative stress" Neurotoxicol Teratol 48:49-55 (2015)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 000082?via
(NOTE: Fluoride levels here are not really "high" for rodents. They are 5 and 50 ppm. Rodents require much higher amounts of fluoride in water to achieve similar fluoride serum levels as are seen in humans. Test rats are routinely given fluoride water concentrations at 25 to 100 ppm to produce dental fluorosis.)

Gq/11

Simard E, Söllradl T, Maltais JS, Boucher J, D'Orléans-Juste P, Grandbois M - "Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Signaling Interferes with the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Contractile Phenotype and Function" PLoS One 10(8):e0128881 (2015)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26248341/
"RAGE signaling increases V1R/Gq-dependent calcium signaling."

Thyroid

Ruggeri RM, Barbalace MC, Cristani MT, Alibrandi A, Giovinazzo S, Giuffrida G, Trimarchi F, Cannavò S, Campennì A - "Serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased and their soluble receptor (sRAGE) reduced in Hashimoto's thyroiditis" J Endocrinol Invest 43(9):1337-1342 (2020)
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 20-01231-7

Ruggeri RM, Cristani M, Vicchio TM, Alibrandi A, Giovinazzo S, Saija A, Campennì A, Trimarchi F, Gangemi S - "Increased serum interleukin-37 (IL-37) levels correlate with oxidative stress parameters in Hashimoto's thyroiditis" J Endocrinol Invest 42(2):199-205 (2019)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32232775/

D'Adamo E, De Leonibus C, Giannini C, Corazzini V, De Remigis A, Chiarelli F, Mohn A - "Thyroid dysfunction in obese pre-pubertal children: oxidative stress as a potential pathogenetic mechanism" Free Radic Res 46(3):303-9 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22239613/

TSH

D'Adamo E, De Leonibus C, Giannini C, Corazzini V, De Remigis A, Chiarelli F, Mohn A - "Thyroid dysfunction in obese pre-pubertal children: oxidative stress as a potential pathogenetic mechanism" Free Radic Res 46(3):303-9 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22239613/
"TSH significantly correlated with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), HOMA-IR, PGF-2α, esRAGE and sRAGE.]
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