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"Common complications found in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 include acute cardiac injury and acute kidney injury"
(Li et al., 2020)
Li Y, Zhou W, Yang L, You R - "Physiological and pathological regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor." Pharmacol Res 157:104833 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104833. Epub 2020 Apr 14. PMID: 32302706; PMCID: PMC7194807
Lim JH, Park SH, Jeon Y, Cho JH, Jung HY, Choi JY, Kim CD, Lee YH, Seo H, Lee J, Kwon KT, Kim SW, Chang HH, Kim YL - "Fatal Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients with Severe Acute Kidney Injury" J Clin Med 9(6):E1718 (2020) doi: 10.3390/jcm9061718. PMID: 32503180
There are many reports on fluoride-induced kidney damage. A few are listed below.
"In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children."
(Khandare et al., 2017)
Khandare AL, Gourineni SR, Validandi V - "Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India" Environ Monit Assess 189(11):579 (2017) doi: 10.1007/s10661-017-6288-5. PMID: 29063198
"To sum up, the effect of fluoride on Ca2+-ATPase is a similar to a dose-effect relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and the increase of [Ca2+]i probably plays a key role on the mechanism of renal injury in fluorosis."
(Xu et al., 2007)
- NOTE: Gq/11 have been unequivocally established to be the transducing G proteins for Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptors (Exton, 1993).
Xu H, Zhou YL, Zhang JM, Liu H, Jing L, Li GS - "Effects of fluoride on the intracellular free Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase of kidney" Biol Trace Elem Res 116(3):279-88 (2007) doi: 10.1007/BF02698012. PMID: 17709908
Shao D, Zhang J, Tang L, Yu Q, Hu X, Ruan Q, Ouyang W, Zhang Z - "Effects and Molecular Mechanism of L-Type Calcium Channel on Fluoride-Induced Kidney Injury" Biol Trace Elem Res (2019) doi: 10.1007/s12011-019-01987-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 31792773
(Zhang et al., 2014)
Zhang Z, Zhou B, Wang H, Wang F, Song Y, Liu S, Xi S - "Maize purple plant pigment protects against fluoride-induced oxidative damage of liver and kidney in rats" Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(1):1020-33 (2014) doi: 10.3390/ijerph110101020. PMID: 24419046; PMCID: PMC3924489
In 2006, Chinese researchers found that Gq/11 levels were increased during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In an study on rats, Propofol was used as an agent to inhibit Gq/11 expression, and was effective in lowering the concentration of Gq/11 in kidney tissue, thus ameliorating the injury to the kidney during ARDS (Zhang et al., 2010; Jialili et al., 2006).
Zhang L, Leifate B, Kelala A - "The dynamic alteration in Gq/11 protein expression in multiple organs during acute respiratory distress syndrome in rat" Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 22(8):477-81 (2010) Chinese. PMID: 20804650
Jialili A, Abasi K, Maimaitizunong, Zhang L, Li XJ - "Influence of propofol on Gq/11 protein in kidney during acute respiratory distress syndrome" Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 18(12):724-6 (2006) Chinese. PMID: 17166350
"Our findings indicate that serum FT3 can be used as an early-stage biomarker for CKD, and FT4 and TSH can be used as advanced-stage biomarkers among Chinese adults."
(Li et al., 2020)
Li J, Wu X, Luo M, Yan M, Wang Q, Li P, Niu W - "Association of Serum Thyroid Hormones with the Risk and Severity of Chronic Kidney Disease Among 3563 Chinese Adults" Med Sci Monit (2020) 26:e922910. doi: 10.12659/MSM.922910. PMID: 32569261
"Among individuals 55 years and older, we observed that those with hypothyroidism were more likely to have CKD."
(Huang et al., 2020)
Huang CW, Li BH, Reynolds K, Jacobsen SJ, Rhee CM, Sim JJ - "Association between hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease observed among an adult population 55 years and older" Medicine (Baltimore) 99(17):e19569 (2020) doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000019569. PMID: 32332605
"Among STEMI patients treated with PCI, the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism is common and may serve as a significant marker for acute kidney injury."
(Zahlet et al., 2019)
Zahler D, Izkhakov E, Rozenfeld KL, Ravid D, Banai S, Topilsky Y, Shacham Y - "Relation of Subclinical Hypothyroidism to Acute Kidney Injury Among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention" Isr Med Assoc J 21(10):692-695 (2019) PMID: 31599513
Ponsoye M, Paule R, Gueutin V, Deray G, Izzedine H - "Rein et dysthyroïdies [Kidney and thyroid dysfunction]" Nephrol Ther 9(1):13-20 (2013) French
SEE ALSO: Rhabdomyolysis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27855234/