Creatine Kinase

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Creatine Kinase

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Creatine Kinase
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Note: Creatine kinase is also known as creatine phosphokinase or phosphocreatine kinase.


Creatine Kinase (CK) levels are elevated in COVID-19 patients (Li et al., 2020).

Li M, Dong Y, Wang H, Guo W, Zhou H, Zhang Z, Tian C, Du K, Zhu R, Wang L, Zhao L, Fan H, Luo S, Hu D - "Cardiovascular disease potentially contributes to the progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19" Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis S0939-4753(20)30134-4 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.04.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32456948; PMCID: PMC7165120


CK levels are increased in fluoride poisoning (Hassan et al., 2009).

Hassan HA, Yousef MI - "Mitigating effects of antioxidant properties of black berry juice on sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats" Food Chem Toxicol 47(9):2332-7 (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.06.023. Epub 2009 Jun 21. PMID: 19540898

Panneerselvam L, Govindarajan V, Ameeramja J, Nair HR, Perumal E - "Single oral acute fluoride exposure causes changes in cardiac expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic and necrotic markers in male rats" Biochimie 119:27-35 (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2015.10.002. Epub 2015 Oct 9. PMID: 26455266

Kaczmarek U - "Creatine kinase activity in the saliva of subjects from areas with various fluoride content in drinking water" Czas Stomatol 39(8):504-9 (1986) Polish. PMID: 3477391

Kaul RD, Susheela AK - "Symposium on the non-skeletal phase of chronic fluorosis - The Muscle" Fluoride 9:9-18 (1976)


Kaiser E, Tian Q, Wagner M, Barth M, Xian W, Schröder L, Ruppenthal S, Kaestner L, Boehm U, Wartenberg P, Lu H, McMillin SM, Bone DBJ, Wess J, Lipp P - "DREADD technology reveals major impact of Gq signalling on cardiac electrophysiology" Cardiovasc Res 115(6):1052-1066 (2019) doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvy251. PMID: 30321287; PMCID: PMC6736079.

"Our results suggest that creatine kinase is bound to PAR-1 where it may be poised to provide bursts of site-specific high-energy phosphate necessary for efficient receptor signal transduction during cytoskeletal reorganization."

Mahajan VB, Pai KS, Lau A, Cunningham DD - " Creatine kinase, an ATP-generating enzyme, is required for thrombin receptor signaling to the cytoskeleton" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(22):12062-7 (2000) doi: 10.1073/pnas.97.22.12062. PMID: 11050237; PMCID: PMC17294

PAR-1 receptor is coupled to Gq/11

Kamato D, Mitra P, Davis F, Osman N, Chaplin R, Cabot PJ, Afroz R, Thomas W, Zheng W, Kaur H, Brimble M, Little PJ - " Gaq proteins: molecular pharmacology and therapeutic potential" Cell Mol Life Sci 74(8):1379-1390 (2017) doi: 10.1007/s00018-016-2405-9. Epub 2016 Nov 4. PMID: 27815595


"Specific activity of hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased in both muscle phenotypes whereas, creatine kinase activity increased in skeletal muscles alone...Thus, the present study suggests that euthyroid status during prenatal and early postnatal life is essential to have optimal AR status and metabolic activity at adulthood."

Annapoorna K, Anbalagan J, Neelamohan R, Vengatesh G, Stanley J, Amudha G, Aruldhas MM - "Transient gestational and neonatal hypothyroidism-induced specific changes in androgen receptor expression in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult rat" Horm Metab Res 45(3):197-205 (2013) doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1323842. Epub 2012 Oct 26. PMID: 23104419

Erbaş İM, Demir K - "The clinical spectrum of resistance to thyroid hormone alpha in children and adults" J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol (2020) Apr 29. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2020.2019.0190. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32349464
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