© 2020 PFPC
Many COVID-19 patients present with high blood pressure. Hypertension and pre-existing cardiovascular disease are identified risk factors for morbidity from COVID-19.
"Patients suffering from infection by SARS-CoV2 frequently present arterial hypertension....The data of Gao et al. show that hypertensive patients demonstrate a two-fold relative increase in the risk of COVID-19 mortality, particularly if they do not receive antihypertensive treatment."
(Ruilope et al., 2020)
Ruilope LM, Tamargo J, Ruiz-Hurtado G - "Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of antihypertensive drugs" Eur Heart J. ehaa487 (2020) doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa487. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32498078
https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/adva ... 87/5851433
Li M, Zhao Y, Tian X, Liu P, Xie J, Dong N, Feng J, Gao Y, Fan Y, Qiu Y, Tian F, Yan X - "Fluoride Exposure and Blood Pressure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Biol Trace Elem Res 199(3):925-934 (2021)"...subgroup analysis indicated that blood pressure will rise with the increase of fluoride exposure concentrations in endemic fluorosis areas." (Li et al., 2021)
"In conclusion, we found the increase of hypertension prevalence and the SBP mean with the increase of F level in the GWRs of Iranian population."
(Amini et al., 2011)
Amini H, Taghavi Shahri SM, Amini M, Ramezani Mehrian M, Mokhayeri Y, Yunesian M - "Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study" Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1-3):157-63 (2011) doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9054-5. Epub 2011 Apr 12. PMID: 21484404
"High BP was directly correlated with fluoride in serum and urine and serum MDA levels and inversely with serum catalase levels."
(Susheela & Toteja, 2018)
Susheela AK, Toteja GS - "Prevention & control of fluorosis & linked disorders: Developments in the 21st Century - Reaching out to patients in the community & hospital settings for recovery" Indian J Med Res 148(5):539-547 (2018) doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1775_18. PMID: 30666981; PMCID: PMC6366265
To Assess Fluoride Exposure in Systemic Hypertension and its Effect on Lipid Peroxidation
Kulkarni Ajit V, Gupta N, Susheela AK, Mishra TK, Kulkarni MA, Jindal G, Sundaram S
Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated LN Hospital, New Delhi
https://japi.org/march_2009/hypertensio ... ssion.html
"Correlation tests showed that fluoride levels are related to variations in the bio-indicators of high blood pressure and oxidative stress (R varied from 0.354 to 0.907)."
(Melila et al., 2019)
Melila M, Rajendran R, Lumo AK, Arumugam G, Kpemissi M, Sadikou A, Lazar G, Amouzou K - "Cardiovascular dysfunction and oxidative stress following human contamination by fluoride along with environmental xenobiotics (Cd & Pb) in the phosphate treatment area of Togo, West Africa" J Trace Elem Med Biol 56:13-20 (2019) doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.07.002. Epub 2019 Jul 10. PMID: 31442949
The role of Gq/11 in hypertension has long been established. The AT1R receptor is coupled to Gq/11, activating multiple downstream signals, including PKC, ERK1/2, Raf, tyrosine kinases, receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR, PDGF, insulin receptor), nuclear factor κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Balakumar & Jagadeesh, 2014).
Balakumar P, Jagadeesh G - "A century old renin-angiotensin system still grows with endless possibilities: AT1 receptor signaling cascades in cardiovascular physiopathology" Cell Signal 26(10):2147-60 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jul 5. PMID: 25007996
Taylor MJ, Ullenbruch MR, Frucci EC, Rege J, Ansorge MS, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Begum S, Laufer E, Breault DT, Rainey WE - "Chemogenetic activation of adrenocortical Gq signaling causes hyperaldosteronism and disrupts functional zonation" J Clin Invest 130(1):83-93 (2020) doi: 10.1172/JCI127429. PMID: 31738186; PMCID: PMC6934213
Szekeres M, Nádasy GL, Turu G, Soltész-Katona E, Benyó Z, Offermanns S, Ruisanchez É, Szabó E, Takáts Z, Bátkai S, Tóth ZE, Hunyady L - "Endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor signaling-induced vasoconstriction and hypertension" Mol Cell Endocrinol 403:46-56 (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2015.01.012. Epub 2015 Jan 13. PMID: 25595485
Again, the regulation of blood pressure by thyroid hormones has long been established. Please see Vargas et al., 2012; for a comprehensive overview.
Vargas F, Rodríguez-Gómez I, Vargas-Tendero P, Jimenez E, Montiel M - "The renin-angiotensin system in thyroid disorders and its role in cardiovascular and renal manifestations" J Endocrinol 213(1):25-36 (2012)
doi: 10.1530/JOE-11-0349. Epub 2011 Oct 31.
Li Y, Zhou W, Yang L, You R - "Physiological and pathological regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor" Pharmacol Res 157:104833 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104833. Epub 2020 Apr 14. PMID: 32302706; PMCID: PMC7194807