Liver Function

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Liver Function

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Liver Function
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"64 of 156 (41.0%) COVID-19 patients had elevated aminotransferase. The median levels of ALT were 50 U/L vs. 19 U/L, respectively, AST were 45.5 U/L vs. 24 U/L, respectively in abnormal and normal aminotransferase groups. The liver enzyme abnormality was associated with disease severity, as well as a series of laboratory tests including higher A-aDO2, higher GGT, lower albumin, decreased CD4+ T cells and B lymphocytes....SARS-CoV-2 infection in liver is a crucial cause of hepatic impairment in COVID-19 patients."

Wang Y, Liu S, Liu H, Li W, Lin F, Jiang L, Li X, Xu P, Zhang L, Zhao L, Cao Y, Kang J, Yang J, Li L, Liu X, Li Y, Nie R, Mu J, Lu F, Zhao S, Lu J, Zhao J - "SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver directly contributes to hepatic impairment in patients with COVID-19" J Hepatol 10:S0168-8278(20)30294-4 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32437830; PMCID: PMC7211738

"Of note is that liver function tests including AST, ALT, GGT and LDH were elevated, and albumin was decreased."

Sun Y, Dong Y, Wang L, Xie H, Li B, Chang C, Wang FS - "Characteristics and prognostic factors of disease severity in patients with COVID-19: The Beijing experience" J Autoimmun 102473 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102473. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32439209; PMCID: PMC7180376 ... via%3Dihub


"Serum samples of these children showed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and decreased levels of total protein, albumin, and potassium."

AR Shivashankara AR,Shivaraja Shankara YM, Hanumanth Rao S, Gopalakrishna Bhat P - "A clinical and biochemical study of chronic fluoride toxicity in children of Kheru Thanda of Gulbarga District, Karnataka, India" Fluoride 33(2):66-73 (2000) ... a-2000.pdf
"NaF induced apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) signaling pathway, which was characterized by significantly increasing mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-R1, Fas associated death domain (FADD), TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8) and cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3) in dose- and time-dependent manner. Oxidative stress is involved in the process of apoptotic occurrence, and can be triggered by promoting ROS production and reducing antioxidant function. NaF-caused oxidative stress and apoptosis finally impaired hepatic function, which was strongly supported by the histopathological lesions and increased serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartic acid transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities and TBIL contents."
(Lu et al, 2017)

Lu Y, Luo Q, Cui H, Deng H, Kuang P, Liu H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Li Y, Wang X, Zhao L - "Sodium fluoride causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in the mouse liver" Aging (Albany NY) 9(6):1623-1639 (2017) doi: 10.18632/aging.101257. PMID: 28657544; PMCID: PMC5509460.

Zhao L, Yu Y, Deng C - "Expression of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and its inhibition by cyclopamine in rat liver with chronic fluorosis" Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 43(12):814-9 (2014) Chinese. PMID: 25623978

GGT in Children
Xiong X, Liu J, He W, Xia T, He P, Chen X, Yang K, Wang A - "Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children" Environ Res 103(1):112-6 (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.008. Epub 2006 Jul 10. PMID: 16834990.

Kessabi M, Khouzaimi M, Braun JP, Hamliri A - "Serum biochemical effects of fluoride on cattle in the Darmous area" Vet Hum Toxicol 25(6):403-6 (1983) PMID: 6659304

Khandare AL, Validandi V, Gourineni SR, Gopalan V, Nagalla B - "Dose-dependent effect of fluoride on clinical and subclinical indices of fluorosis in school going children and its mitigation by supply of safe drinking water for 5 years: An Indian study" Environ Monit Assess. 190(3):110 (2018) ... 018-6501-1


"Graves' disease is commonly associated with abnormal liver enzymes, and most commonly with abnormal levels of GGT, and that an abnormal liver enzyme profile is more directly linked to the degree of thyrotoxicosis than levels of TRAB."

Hsieh A, Adelstein S, McLennan SV, Williams PF, Chua EL, Twigg SM - "Liver enzyme profile and progression in association with thyroid autoimmunity in Graves' disease" Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2(4):e00086 (2019) doi: 10.1002/edm2.86. PMID: 31592447; PMCID: PMC6775470

"Correlation analysis showed close correlation between FGF21 and ALT (p < 0.002), AST (p < 0.012), free T3 (p < 0.001), free T4 (p < 0.001)."

Xiao F, Zeng J, Huang P, Yan B, Zeng X, Liu C, Shi X, Wang L, Song H, Lin M, Yang S, Li Z, Li X, Liu C -"Independent Association of Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels With Impaired Liver Enzymes in Hyperthyroid Patients" Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 9:800 (2019) doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00800. PMID: 30692965; PMCID: PMC6339876.
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