Vitamin D - Solutions

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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Vitamin D - Solutions

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Vitamin D
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COVID-19

Mitchell F - "Vitamin-D and COVID-19: do deficient risk a poorer outcome?" Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol S2213-8587(20)30183-2 (2020) doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30183-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32445630.

Martín Giménez VM, Inserra F, Tajer CD, Mariani J, Ferder L, Reiter RJ, Manucha W - "Lungs as target of COVID-19 infection: Protective common molecular mechanisms of vitamin D and melatonin as a new potential synergistic treatment" Life Sci 254:117808. (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117808. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32422305; PMCID: PMC7227533
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227533/

Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, Bhattoa HP - "Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths" Nutrients 12(4):988 (2020) doi: 10.3390/nu12040988. PMID: 32252338; PMCID: PMC7231123.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32252338/

Borsche L, Glauner B, von Mendel J - "COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 13(10):3596 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC8541492/

Pulse Doses

Lakkireddy M, Gadiga SG, Malathi RD, Karra ML, Raju ISSVPM, Ragini, Chinapaka S, Baba KSSS, Kandakatla M - "Impact of daily high dose oral vitamin D therapy on the inflammatory markers in patients with COVID 19 disease" Sci Rep 11(1):10641 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... _90189.pdf

Fluoride

Bondu JD, Seshadri MS, Selvakumar R, Fleming JJ - "Effects of Fluoride on Bone in an Animal Model of Vitamin D Deficiency" Indian J Clin Biochem 34(1):60-67. doi: 10.1007/s12291-017-0709-7 (2019)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30728674

Khandare AL, Validandi V, Gourineni SR, Gopalan V, Nagalla B - "Dose-dependent effect of fluoride on clinical and subclinical indices of fluorosis in school going children and its mitigation by supply of safe drinking water for 5 years: An Indian study" Environ Monit Assess. 190(3):110 (2018)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29396763/

Kumar N, Sood S, Arora B, Singh M, Beena, Roy PS - "To Study the Effect of Vitamin D and E on Sodium-Fluoride-induced Toxicity in Reproductive Functions of Male Rabbits." Toxicol Int 19(2):182-7 (2012)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22778518

Dey Bhowmik A, Shaw P, Mondal P, Chakraborty A, Sudarshan M, Chattopadhyay A - "Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation Effectively Alleviates Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis and Retain Elemental Homeostasis in Mice" Biol Trace Elem Res 199(8):3035-3044 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33057951/

Yang D, Liu Y, Chu Y, Yang Q, Jiang W, Chen F, Li D, Qin M, Sun D, Yang Y, Gao Y - "Association between vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism and skeletal fluorosis of the brick-tea type fluorosis: a cross sectional, case control study" BMJ Open 6(11):e011980 (2016)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129067/
Note: There are many studies involving fluoride and Vitamin D.


Gq/11

Schwartz Z, Sylvia VL, Larsson D, Nemere I, Casasola D, Dean DD, Boyan BD - "1alpha,25(OH)2D3 regulates chondrocyte matrix vesicle protein kinase C (PKC) directly via G-protein-dependent mechanisms and indirectly via incorporation of PKC during matrix vesicle biogenesis" J Biol Chem 277(14):11828-37 (2002)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11805100/
"However, inhibition of G(q) blocked the effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)."

Le Mellay V, Lasmoles F, Lieberherr M - "Galpha(q/11) and gbetagamma proteins and membrane signaling of calcitriol and estradiol" J Cell Biochem. 75(1):138-46 (1999)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10462712/
"The action of calcitriol on InsP(3) formation and Ca(2+) mobilization in Fura-2-loaded confluent osteoblasts involved Galpha(q/11)."

Sylvia VL, Del Toro F Jr, Hardin RR, Dean DD, Boyan BD, Schwartz Z - "Characterization of PGE(2) receptors (EP) and their role as mediators of 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3) effects on growth zone chondrocytes" J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 78(3):261-74 (2001)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11595507/
"EP1 receptor-induced PKC activity was insensitive to pertussis toxin or choleratoxin but blocked by the G-protein inhibitor GDPbetaS, suggesting the involvement of G(q). These results suggest that the EP1 receptor subtype mediates various PGE(2)-induced cellular responses in growth zone chondrocytes leading to decreased proliferation and enhanced differentiation, as well as the effect of 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on cellular maturation."

SEE also:

Berg JP, Sandvik JA, Ree AH, Sørnes G, Bjøro T, Torjesen PA, Gordeladze JO, Haug E - "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates adenylyl cyclase activity in rat thyroid cells: reduction of thyrotropin receptor number and increase in guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi-2 alpha" Endocrinology 135(2):595-602 (1994)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8033808/
"Our studies show that 1,25-(OH)2D3 attenuates AC activity by reducing the TSH receptor number and increasing the level of the AC inhibitory G-protein Gi-2 alpha in FRTL-5 cells."


Thyroid/TSH

Aljohani NJ, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkhrafy KM, Al-Othman A, Yakout S, Alkabba AF, Al-Ghamdi AS, Almalki M, Buhary BM, Sabico S - "Differences and associations of metabolic and vitamin D status among patients with and without sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction" BMC Endocr Disord 13:31 (2013)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751774/
("FT3 was inversely associated with circulating 25 (OH) vitamin D (R = -0.25; p = 0.01).")

Mei X, Zeng J, Dai WX, Yang HL, Li Y, Tang MW, Qiu P - "Prevalence of hyperthyroidism with hypercalcemia in Xindu district and the efficacy of vitamin D3 treatment in these patients: a randomized trial" Ann Palliat Med 10(9):9640-9649 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34628889/
"Following the addition of vitamin D3 treatment, serum Ca2+, FT3, FT4, and TRAb levels were significantly decreased relative to the ATD group, while the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), PTH, and 25-OHVit D levels were normalized."

Raval-Pandya M, Freedman LP, Li H, Christakos S - "Thyroid hormone receptor does not heterodimerize with the vitamin D receptor but represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation" Mol Endocrinol 12(9):1367-79 (1998)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9731705/

Shan X, Liu C, Luo X, Zou Y, Huang L, Zhou W, Qin Q, Mao D, Li M, Yang L - "Iodine Nutritional Status and Related Factors among Chinese School-Age Children in Three Different Areas: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 13(5):1404 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143470/
"Further, the VD deficient group had a higher TSH compared to the sufficient group (p < 0.01)."

Štefanić M, Tokić S - "Serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D concentrations in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of observational studies" Eur J Nutr 59(3):859-872 (2020)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31089869/
"The present work shows a significant association between circulating 25(OH)D and HT".

Talaei A, Ghorbani F, Asemi Z - "The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Thyroid Function in Hypothyroid Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial" Indian J Endocrinol Metab 22(5):584-588 (2018) doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_603_17. PMID: 30294564; PMCID: PMC6166548
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30294564/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166548/
"Vitamin D supplementation resulted in significant increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium, and a significant decrease in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels."

Taneja K, Patel S, Kaur A - "Association of Vitamin D with Thyroid Status in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" Clin Lab 67(6) (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34107621/
"Results: Vitamin D insufficiency was greater in females (89.6%) than in males (78.5%). Females were observed to have significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels (18.7 ± 9.5 versus 20.62 ± 10.2 ng/mL) and higher serum TSH values (2.5 ± 1.25 versus 2.25 ± 1.16 mIU/L) as compared to males. The serum TSH level in the vitamin D sufficiency group were significantly lower than those in the vitamin D insufficiency group (2.39 ± 1.22 versus 2.12 ± 1.1 mIU/ L). Further, age was the only significant predictor of TSH levels. Meanwhile, no predictor was identified for vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D & Hypothyroidism

Appunni S, Rubens M, Ramamoorthy V, Saxena A, Tonse R, Veledar E, McGranaghan P - "Association between vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012" BMC Endocr Disord 21(1):224 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC8590325/
"Low vitamin D levels are associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. Healthcare initiatives such as mass vitamin D deficiency screening among at-risk population could significantly decrease the risk for hypothyroidism in the long-term."

ElRawi HA, Ghanem NS, ElSayed NM, Ali HM, Rashed LA, Mansour MM - "Study of Vitamin D Level and Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism in Hypothyroid Egyptian Patients" J Thyroid Res 2019:3583250 (2019)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC6732640/

Rastegar-Moghaddam SH, Hosseini M, Alipour F, Rajabian A, Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan A - "The effects of vitamin D on learning and memory of hypothyroid juvenile rats and brain tissue acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress indicators" Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2022 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s00210-021-02195-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34982186.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34982186/
"Hypothyroidism was also accompanied by an elevation in AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and a reduced level of thiol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the brain. Treatment with Vit D recovered hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment and improved memory performance in MWM and PA tasks. On the other hand, Vit D alleviated AChE activity and MDA level, whereas increased SOD activity and thiol content in the hippocampal and cortical tissues. In conclusion, these outcomes suggest an association between the oral administrations of Vit D and learning and memory improvement of hypothyroid rats, which was accompanied by decreasing AChE activity and brain tissue oxidative damage."

Vitamin D & Hyperthyroidism

Zhou Y, Wang X, Xin M, Zhuang H- " Changes in bone mineral density, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and inflammatory factors in patients with hyperthyroidism" Exp Ther Med 21(6):617 (2021)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/a ... MC8082602/
"The L1, 25-(OH)D3 and IL-2 levels were significantly negatively correlated with thyroid function index and free triiodothyronine (FT3) while a statistically positive correlation was found between IL-6 and FT3 (P<0.05). In conclusion, abnormal levels of bone mineral density, 25-(OH)D3 and inflammatory factors are observed in patients with hyperthyroidism, and there are correlations between L1, 25-(OH)D3, IL-2, IL-6 and FT3 in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism, which provides new insight for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism."

Vondra K, Stárka L, Hampl R - "Vitamin D and thyroid diseases" Physiol Res 64(Suppl 2):S95-S100 (2015)
http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_S95.pdf

Vitamin D increases ACE-2 expression in human thyroid cells.

Coperchini F, Greco A, Denegri M, Ripepi FA, Grillini B, Bertini J, Calì B, Villani L, Magri F, Croce L, Gaetano C, Cappelli C, Trimboli P, Chiovato L, Rotondi M - "Vitamin D and interferon-γ co-operate to increase the ACE-2 receptor expression in primary cultures of human thyroid cells" J Endocrinol Invest. 2022 Jul 12:1–7. doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-01857-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35829990; PMCID: PMC9277975
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 22-01857-9
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