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In the US, recent data shows that counties with higher proportions of black residents had more COVID-19 diagnoses and deaths, after adjusting for county-level characteristics such as age, poverty, comorbidities, and epidemic duration (Millett et al., 2020).
Millett GA, Jones AT, Benkeser D, Baral S, Mercer L, Beyrer C, Honermann B, Lankiewicz E, Mena L, Crowley JS, Sherwood J, Sullivan P - "Assessing Differential Impacts of COVID-19 on Black Communities" Ann Epidemiol (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.003. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32419766; PMCID: PMC7224670.
"For example, data from the UK Office for National Statistics shows that black people in England and Wales are more than four times more likely to die from COVID-19 than are white people."
Mitchell F - "Vitamin-D and COVID-19: do deficient risk a poorer outcome?" Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol S2213-8587(20)30183-2 (2020) doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30183-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32445630.
https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals ... 0183-2.pdf
"Dental fluorosis ...prevalence estimates for Non-Hispanic Blacks were consistently higher than those for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics."
(Akinkugbe et al., 2014)
Akinkugbe A, Iafolla T, Chattopadhyay A, Garcia I, Adams A, Kingman A - "The role of partial recording protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis" Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 42(6):563-71 (2014) doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12115. Epub 2014 Jul 4. PMID: 24995860; PMCID: PMC4245329
(Butler et al., 1985)"White and Spanish-surname children had about the same prevalence of mottling while Blacks had a higher prevalence...."
Butler WJ, Segreto V, Collins E - "Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities" Am J Public Health 75(12):1408-12 (1985)
"Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.5 percent White and 80.1 percent African American children."
(Martinez-Mier & Soto-Rojas, 2010)
Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE - "Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children" J Public Health Dent 70(3):234-40 (2010)
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs ... 10.00173.x
Blacks have a considerable lower "normal thyroid status" and thus effects would be more pronounced among the black population. Their "normal" TSH level lies lower than in the white population (Long et al, 1985; Schectman et al. 1991, etc.). Since the 1980s it has been known that serum ACE activities change in proportion to thyroid hormone levels (Lee et al., 1986; Nakamura et al., 1980; Yotsumoto et al., 1983; Nakamura et al., 1982; Silverstein et al., 1983).
"Black patients had significantly more thyroid disease than Mexican-American (p less than 0.01) or white patients (p less than 0.005).”
(Long et al., 1985)
Long TJ, Felice ME, Hollingsworth DR - "Goiter in pregnant teenagers" Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985 Jul 15;152(6 Pt 1):670-4(1985)
"An unexpected finding was a significantly increased mean serum TSH in whites (2.09 + 0.91; mean + standard error of mean) when compared to blacks (1.74 + 0.10; P = 0.0185)."
(Edupuganti et al., 1997)
Edupuganti S, Svec F, Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS - "Thyroid function in children with different lipoprotein profiles: observations in a biracial (black/white) population--the Bogalusa Heart Study" Am J Med Sci 313(2):80-4(1997)
"The mean TSH level of Blacks was 0.4 (SE .053) mU/L lower than that for Whites after age and sex adjustment, race explaining 6.5 percent of the variation in TSH levels. A validation sample yield similar results. This finding supports the possibility that differences in thyroid function and/or regulation may be associated with race."
(Schectman et al., 1991)
Schectman JM, Kallenberg GA, Hirsch RP, Shumacher RJ - "Report of an association between race and thyroid stimulating hormone level" Am J Public Health. 81(4):505-6 (1991) doi: 10.2105/ajph.81.4.505. PMID: 2003636; PMCID: PMC1405055
"African American women had significantly lower mean TSH concentrations than Caucasian, Hispanic and Chinese women."
(Sowers et al., 2003)
Sowers M, Luborsky J, Perdue C, Araujo KL, Goldman MB, Harlow SD; SWAN -"Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and menopausal status in women at the mid-life: SWAN" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 58(3):340-7 (2003)
Lee DS, Chung JK, Cho BY, Koh CS, Lee M - "Changes of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity during treatment of
patients with Graves' disease" Korean J Intern Med 1(1):104-12 (1986)
Nakamura Y, Takedo M, et al. - "Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with Graves’ disease and hypothyroidism" gaku-no-Ayumi 113:27 (1980).
Nakamura Y, Takeda T, Ishii M, Nishiyama K, Yamakada M, Hirata Y, Kimura K, Murao S - "Elevation of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in patients with hyperthyroidism" J Clin Endo Meta 55:931(1982)
Silverstein E, Schussler GC, Friedlang J - "Elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme in hyperthyroidism" Am J Med 75:233 (1983)
Yotsumoto H, Imai Y, Kuzuya N, Uchimura H, Matsuzaki F - "Increased levels of serum angiotensin-converting activity in hyperthyroidism" Am J Med 75:233 (1983)
"However, the action of thyroid hormones on angiotensin receptors is tissue-dependent. AII receptors in atrium, thoracic aortic, and liver tissues were increased in experimental hyperthyroidism in dogs (Sernia et al. 1993), similar to the findings by Marchant et al. (1993) in hyperthyroid rats, in which AII receptors were increased in the heart, liver, and kidneys but reduced in the adrenal gland."
(Vargas et al., 2012)
Vargas F, Rodríguez-Gómez I, Vargas-Tendero P, Jimenez E, Montiel M - "The renin-angiotensin system in thyroid disorders and its role in cardiovascular and renal manifestations" J Endocrinol 213(1):25-36 (2012)