A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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TGF-b (Transforming growth factor beta)
© 2020 PFPC


"Our data suggests that increased expression of TGF-b in COVID-19 patients might be the cause of pulmonary fibrosis."

"... anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-b were also induced upon SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, resembling the high TGF-b activity found in SARS patients."

(Xiong et al., 2020)

Xiong Y, Liu Y, Cao L, Wang D, Guo M, Jiang A, Guo D, Hu W, Yang J, Tang Z, Wu H, Lin Y, Zhang M, Zhang Q, Shi M, Liu Y, Zhou Y, Lan K, Chen Y - "Transcriptomic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in COVID-19 patients" Emerg Microbes Infect 9(1):761-770 (2020). doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1747363. PMID: 32228226; PMCID: PMC7170362


Yu H, Jiang N, Yu X, Zhao Z, Zhang X, Xu H - "The role of TGFβ receptor 1-smad3 signaling in regulating the osteoclastic mode affected by fluoride" Toxicology. 393:73-82 (2018)

Zhang J, Jiang N, Yu H, Yu X, Guo F, Zhao Z, Xu H - "Requirement of TGFβ Signaling for Effect of Fluoride on Osteoblastic Differentiation" Biol Trace Elem Res 187(2):492-498 (2019) doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1387-x. Epub 2018 May 16. PMID: 29770951

Kido T, Tsunoda M, Sugaya C, Hano H, Yanagisawa H - "Fluoride potentiates tubulointerstitial nephropathy caused by unilateral ureteral obstruction" Toxicology 392:106-118 (2017) doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 9. PMID: 29024711

Suzuki M, Shin M, Simmer JP, Bartlett JD - "Fluoride affects enamel protein content via TGF-β1-mediated KLK4 inhibition"J Dent Res 93(10):1022-7 (2014) doi: 10.1177/0022034514545629. Epub 2014 Jul 29. PMID: 25074495; PMCID: PMC4212320


Uchiyama-Tanaka Y, Matsubara H, Mori Y, Kosaki A, Kishimoto N, Amano K, Higashiyama S, Iwasaka T -"Involvement of HB-EGF and EGF receptor transactivation in TGF-beta-mediated fibronectin expression in mesangial cells" Kidney Int 62(3):799-808 (2002)doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00537.x. PMID: 12164862

John AE, Wilson MR, Habgood A, Porte J, Tatler AL, Stavrou A, Miele G, Jolly L, Knox AJ, Takata M, Offermanns S, Jenkins RG - "Loss of epithelial Gq and G11 signaling inhibits TGFβ production but promotes IL-33-mediated macrophage polarization and emphysema" Sci Signal 9(451):ra104 (2016) doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aad5568. PMID: 27811142

SEE ALSO: ERK/MAPK viewtopic.php?f=66&t=1914


Alonso-Merino E, Martín Orozco R, Ruíz-Llorente L, Martínez-Iglesias OA, Velasco-Martín JP, Montero-Pedrazuela A, Fanjul-Rodríguez L, Contreras-Jurado C, Regadera J, Aranda A - "Thyroid hormones inhibit TGF-β signaling and attenuate fibrotic responses" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(24):E3451-60 (2016) doi: 10.1073/pnas.1506113113. Epub 2016 May 31. PMID: 27247403; PMCID: PMC4914168.
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