A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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"Elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase level identifies patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and predicts the length of hospital stay."(Gu el., 2020)

Gu X, Li X, An X, Yang S, Wu S, Yang X, Wang H - "Elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase level identifies patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and predicts the length of hospital stay" J Clin Lab Anal - Jun 2:e23391 (2020) doi: 10.1002/jcla.23391. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32488888
"Clinical manifestation such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea and laboratory examination such as WBC, AST, Cr, PCT, LDH, hs-cTnI and D-dimer could imply the progression of COVID-19." (Zheng et al, 2020)

Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, Zhao J, Liu H, Peng J, Li Q, Jiang C, Zhou Y, Liu S, Ye C, Zhang P, Xing Y, Guo H, Tang W - "Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis." J Infect 23:S0163-4453(20)30234-6 (2020)
doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.021. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32335169; PMCID: PMC7177098
"Of note is that liver function tests including AST, ALT, GGT and LDH were elevated, and albumin was decreased."(Sun et al., 2020)

Sun Y, Dong Y, Wang L, Xie H, Li B, Chang C, Wang FS - "Characteristics and prognostic factors of disease severity in patients with COVID-19: The Beijing experience" J Autoimmun 102473 (2020) doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102473. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32439209; PMCID: PMC7180376 ... via%3Dihub


Tan A, Stepien KM, Narayana STK - "Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency and post-COVID vaccination rhabdomyolysis" QJM hcab077n (2021) doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcab077. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33871650; PMCID: PMC8083200.

"NaF induced apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) signaling pathway, which was characterized by significantly increasing mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-R1, Fas associated death domain (FADD), TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8) and cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3) in dose- and time-dependent manner. Oxidative stress is involved in the process of apoptotic occurrence, and can be triggered by promoting ROS production and reducing antioxidant function. NaF-caused oxidative stress and apoptosis finally impaired hepatic function, which was strongly supported by the histopathological lesions and increased serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartic acid transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities and TBIL contents." (Lu et al, 2017)

Lu Y, Luo Q, Cui H, Deng H, Kuang P, Liu H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Li Y, Wang X, Zhao L - "Sodium fluoride causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in the mouse liver" Aging (Albany NY) 9(6):1623-1639 (2017) doi: 10.18632/aging.101257. PMID: 28657544; PMCID: PMC5509460.

SEE ALSO: Cardiac Troponins


Sterne-Marr R, Tesmer JJ, Day PW, Stracquatanio RP, Cilente JA, O'Connor KE, Pronin AN, Benovic JL, Wedegaertner PB -"G protein-coupled receptor Kinase 2/G alpha q/11 interaction. A novel surface on a regulator of G protein signaling homology domain for binding G alpha subunits" J Biol Chem 278(8):6050-8 (2002)


Xiao F, Zeng J, Huang P, Yan B, Zeng X, Liu C, Shi X, Wang L, Song H, Lin M, Yang S, Li Z, Li X, Liu C - "Independent Association of Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels With Impaired Liver Enzymes in Hyperthyroid Patients" Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 9:800 (2019) doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00800. PMID: 30692965; PMCID: PMC6339876
"At the end of the study, plasma AST levels were found to be significantly increased in hypothyroid rats in comparison with control and treatment with extract prevented the increase in AST levels."(Ashwini et al., 2017)
Ashwini S, Bobby Z, Sridhar MG, Cleetus CC - "Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) Extract Restores Thyroid Hormone Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism" Pharmacognosy Res 9(1):51-59 (2017) doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.199766. PMID: 28250654; PMCID: PMC5330103
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