IFN (Interferon)

A forum investigating the similarities between COVID-19 and fluoride poisoning, thyroid dysfunction and Gq/11 pathways.
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IFN (Interferon)

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IFN Interferon
© 2021 PFPC
"Interferons got their name because they "interfere" with viruses and keep them from multiplying." (WebMD)

Levels of IFN-y were significantly lower in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients than in non-infected controls (Tripathy et al., 2021), while they were found elevated in severe COVID-19 cases (Teixera et al., 2021), and in the thyroids of deceased patients (Poma et al., 2021).

After vaccination with Pfizer or Moderna, IFN-y levels increase, of course (Markewitz et al., 2021 --> see paper for more info).


COVID-19

Poma AM, Basolo A, Bonuccelli D, Proietti A, Macerola E, Ugolini C, Torregrossa L, Alì G, Giannini R, Vignali P, Santini F, Toniolo A, Basolo F - "Activation of Type I and Type II Interferon signaling in SARS-CoV-2-positive thyroid tissue of patients dying from COVID-19" Thyroid. 2021 Sep 19. doi: 10.1089/thy.2021.0345. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34541878
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34541878/

Tripathy AS, Vishwakarma S, Trimbake D, Gurav YK, Potdar VA, Mokashi ND, Patsute SD, Kaushal H, Choudhary ML, Tilekar BN, Sarje P, Dange VS, Abraham P - "Pro-inflammatory CXCL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6: biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection" Arch Virol. 2021 Sep 23. doi: 10.1007/s00705-021-05247-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34554303
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34554303/

Teixeira PC, Dorneles GP, Santana Filho PC, da Silva IM, Schipper LL, Postiga IAL, Neves CAM, Rodrigues Junior LC, Peres A, Souto JT, Fonseca SG, Eller S, Oliveira TF, Rotta LN, Thompson CE, Romão PRT - "Increased LPS levels coexist with systemic inflammation and result in monocyte activation in severe COVID-19 patients" Int Immunopharmacol. 100:108125 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34543980/


Vaccination

Markewitz R, Pauli D, Dargvainiene J, Steinhagen K, Engel S, Herbst V, Zapf D, Krüger C, Sharifzadeh S, Schomburg B, Leypoldt F, Rupp J, Görg S, Junker R, Wandinger KP - "The temporal course of T- and B-cell-responses to vaccination with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273" Clin Microbiol Infect 1198-743X(21)00496-1 (2021) doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.006. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34547457; PMCID: PMC8450229
https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfe ... 1/fulltext
SEE data for duration info.


Fluoride

Increased IFN levels are seen in fluorosis (Lv et al., 2016), and have also been observed in anesthesiologists and their assistants dealing with fluoride toxicity from exposure to waste anaesthetic gases (WAGs) (Al-Rasheedi et al., 2021).
"Anaesthesiologists and their assistants exhibited the highest levels of plasma fluoride, serum IFN-γ and IL 2, exceeding the levels detected in all the other occupational subgroups."(Al-Rasheedi et al., 2021).
In mice, fluoride reduces serum IFN levels dose-dependently when given for short periods, or as pulse doses (Guo et al., 2017). Effects depend on dosage, duration and are organ-specific.


Al-Rasheedi KA, Alqasoumi AA, Emara AM - "Effect of inhaled anaesthetics gases on cytokines and oxidative stress alterations for the staff health status in hospitals" Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s00420-021-01705-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33959815
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33959815/

Wu P, Sun Z, Lv X, Pei X, Manthari RK, Wang J - "Fluoride Induces Autoimmune Orchitis Involved with Enhanced IL-17A Secretion in Mice Testis" J Agric Food Chem 67(48):13333-13343 (2019) doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b05789. Epub 2019 Nov 18. PMID: 31703480
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31703480/

Guo H, Kuang P, Luo Q, Cui H, Deng H, Liu H, Lu Y, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Li Y, Wang X, Zhao L - "Effects of sodium fluoride on blood cellular and humoral immunity in mice" Oncotarget 8(49):85504-85515 (2017)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689626/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... objectonly

Kuang P, Deng H, Cui H, Chen L, Guo H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Wang X, Zhao L - " Suppressive effects of sodium fluoride on cultured splenic lymphocyte proliferation in mice" Oncotarget 7(38):61905-61915 (2016)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308699/

Lv YG, Kang L, Wu G - "Fluorosis increases the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis by stimulating interferon γ." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 479(2):372-379 (2016)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27644876/
"Stimulation of IFNγ production is a pivotal 'upstream' mechanism by which fluoride promotes bone loss."


Gq/11

see: MAPK --> p38 MAPK regulates the expression of IFN


Thyroid

Poma AM, Basolo A, Bonuccelli D, Proietti A, Macerola E, Ugolini C, Torregrossa L, Alì G, Giannini R, Vignali P, Santini F, Toniolo A, Basolo F - "Activation of Type I and Type II Interferon signaling in SARS-CoV-2-positive thyroid tissue of patients dying from COVID-19" Thyroid. 2021 Sep 19. doi: 10.1089/thy.2021.0345. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34541878
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34541878/

Maklakova TP, Zorina VN, Yanysheva AV, Mezentseva EV, Zorin NA. - "Immunoregulatory proteins and cytokines in the blood of patients with Graves' disease" Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 65(1):4-9 (2019)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31091045/
(Increase in Graves Disease)

He J, Li Y, Li H, Zhang C, Zhang J, Sun X, Zheng S - "Correlation between serum 25-(OH)D3 level and immune imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its effect on autophagy of human Hashimoto thyroid cells" Exp Ther Med 21(5):458 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33747191/

Cheng CW, Fang WF, Tang KT, Lin JD - "Serum interferon levels associated with the disease activity in women with overt Graves' disease" Cytokine 138:155353 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33121876/
"Patients with active GD had higher IFN-α2, IFN-γ, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2 levels than those with inactive GD...All IFNs except IFN-λ1 were correlated with TSHRAb titers. Moreover, TNFSF cytokines, consisting of B-cell-activating factor, sCD30, TNFSF14, PTX-3, sTNF-R2, and TSLP, were associated with TSHRAb levels."


TSH

Rashad NM, El Shabrawy RM, Radwan AM, Allam RM, Abdul-Maksoud RS, Sherif MM - "Interferon-gamma Expression Profile as Diagnostic Signatures of Unexplained Infertility in Female Patients Suffer from Hashimoto's Thyroiditis" Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 20(4):465-472 (2021)
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34418900/
"Analysis by linear regression revealed that TSH and FT3 were associated with serum level of IFN-γ; while FT3 was associated with IFN-γ gene expression."


SEE also:
TNF
IL-17. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=2001
TH-17. viewtopic.php?f=66&t=2752&p=3172#p3172
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