REFERENCE SET 2013: Fluoride, Preterm Birth/Low Birth Weight & The Thyroid

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REFERENCE SET 2013: Fluoride, Preterm Birth/Low Birth Weight & The Thyroid

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REFERENCE SET: Fluoride, Preterm Birth/Low Birth Weight & The Thyroid
© 1996 - 2013 PFPC

Abalovivh M, Gutierrez S, Alcaraz G, Maccallini G, Garcia A & Levalle O - "Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism complicating pregnancy" Thyroid 12:63–67 (2002)

Allan WC, Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Williams JR, Michell ML, Hermos RJ, Faix JD, Klein RZ - "Maternal thyroid deficiency and pregnancy complications for population screening" Journal of Medical Screening 7:127–130 (2000)
"From the second trimester onward, the major adverse obstetrical outcome associated with raised TSH in the general population is an increased rate of fetal death."
Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Guxens M, Mendez M, Canet Y, Martorell R, Espada M, Plana E, Rebagliato M, Sunyer J - "Iodine levels and thyroid hormones in healthy pregnant women and birth weight of their offspring" Eur J Endocrinol 160(3):423-9 (2009)
"High TSH levels became statistically significantly associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of SGA (small for gestational age)....The present study suggests that iodine status during pregnancy may be related to prenatal growth in healthy women.

Apelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, Needham LL, Goldman LR - "Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth" Environ Health Perspect 115(11):1670-6 (2007)
"Despite relatively low cord serum concentrations, we observed small negative associations between both PFOS and PFOA concentrations and birth weight and size."

Blazer S, Moreh-Waterman Y, Miller-Lotan R, Tamir A, Hochberg Z - "Maternal hypothyroidism may affect fetal growth and neonatal thyroid function" Obstet Gynecol 102:232–241 (2003)
"Birth weight and head circumference were significantly lesser in the study group (P <.001)."

Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells E, McIntire DD, Byrd W, Leveno KJ & Cunningham FG - "Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes" Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005 ;105:239–245 (2005)
"Preterm birth, defined as delivery at or before 34 weeks of gestation, was almost 2-fold higher in women with subclinical hypothyroidism...We speculate that the previously reported reduction in intelligence quotient of offspring of women with subclinical hypothyroidism may be related to the effects of prematurity"

Changqing Li Zicheng - "Fluoride reproductive and developmental toxicity in mice" Guangdong J Medicine 04 (2002) (elevated T4, low birth weight) as reported in other Chinese studies, i.e.


Das SC, Mohammed AZ, Al-Hassan S, Otokwula AA & Isichei UP - "Effect of environmental iodine deficiency (EID) on fetal growth in Nigeria" Indian Journal of Medical Research 124:535–544 (2006)
"The level of maternal and neonatal thyroid function were significantly reduced in the group with low birth weights (<2.5 kg) as compared to the level seen in normal birth weights...Maternal T3 is an important factor in the defence of foetus in ID regions."

Diouf M, Cisse D, Lo CM, Ly M, Faye D, Ndiaye O - "Pregnant women living in areas of endemic fluorosis in Senegal and low birthweight newborns: case-control study" Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 60(2):103-8 (2012)
"Dean's Index were significantly associated with the occurrence of low birthweight adjusted for gender, consanguinity, anemia and hypertension... Low birthweight was associated with pregnant women living in endemic areas."

Freni SC - "Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates" J Toxicol Environ Health 42(1):109-21 (1994)

Gurumurthy SM et al - "Association of Higher Maternal Serum Fluoride with Adverse Fetal Outcomes" Int J Med Public Health 1(2):13-17 (2011)
"When the maternal serum F was greater than 1 ppm, there was 10.58 times higher risk for low birth weight, 8.65 times higher risk for preterm delivery and 3.8 times higher risk for low APGAR score. When the cord serum F was greater than 0.22ppm, there was 2.76 times higher risk for low birth weight, 4.6 times higher risk for preterm delivery and 2.5 times higher risk for low APgAr score. Conclusion: With increased serum F in the mother, there is an inclination towards pre term
delivery, low birth weight and poor APGAR count."

Idris I, Srinivasan R, Simm A, Page RC - "Maternal hypothyroidism in early and late gestation: effects on neonatal and obstetric outcome" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63(5):560-5 (2005)

Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoantibodies in Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Increased Risk of Gestational Diabetes and Adverse Birth Outcomes

Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M & Mestman JH - "Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies" Obstetrics and Gynecology 81:349–353 (1993)

Männistö T, Mendola P, Reddy U, Laughon SK - "Neonatal outcomes and birth weight in pregnancies complicated by maternal thyroid disease" Am J Epidemiol 178(5):731-40 (2013)

SEE also: Thyroid Diseases and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in a Contemporary US Cohort ... 052413.php


Noriaki Washino, Yasuaki Saijo, Seiko Sasaki, Shizue Kato, Susumu Ban, Kanae Konishi, Rie Ito, Ayako Nakata, Yusuke Iwasaki, Koichi Saito, Hiroyuki Nakazawa, Reiko Kishi - "Correlations between Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Reduced Fetal Growth"
Environ Health Perspec 117(4): 660–667 (2009)

Olivares JL, Olivi GI, Verdasco C, Ortiz VA, Mayer MA, Cresto JC - "Low iodine intake during pregnancy: relationship to placental development and head circumference in newborn" Endocrinol Nutr 59(5):326-30 (2012)
"The study suggests the existence of a relationship between PW and HP. This finding may be related to iodine intake during pregnancy."

Susheela AK et al - "Effective interventional approach to control anaemia in pregnant women" Current Science 98(10):1320-1330 (2010)


Vaidya B, Campbell V, Tripp JH, Spyer G, Hattersley AT, Ellard S -"Premature birth and low birth weight associated with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism due to an activating thyrotropin receptor gene mutation" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:711–718 (2004)
"Premature delivery and low birth weight are consistent features of NAH due to activating TSHR germline mutations. This suggests a possible role for the fetal thyroid axis in the regulation of the timing of delivery and possibly fetal growth."

Wheeler MW, Brock TB, Teasdale D - "Effects of added 30 mg fluoride/1 drinking water given to pregnant ewes and their lambs upon physiology and wool growth" Journal of Agricultural Science 105(3):715-726 (1985) ... id=4772108
"At birth, body weight of the treatment group lambs was reduced, and T3, calcium and magnesium increased."

Zung A, Yehieli A, Almashanu S - "Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia is associated with low birth weight: a twin study" Eur J Endocrinol 168(2):263-9 (2013)
"Elevated TSH levels are associated with low BW, both in infants with HT and in normal neonates."
Verma RJ - "Vitamin C ameliorates fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in pregnant rats" Hum Exp Toxicol 20(12):619-623 (2001)

Preterm birth is two times more common among Black women than White women1–3 and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the U.S.1, 4, 5

Ananth CV, Misra DP, Demissie K, Smulian JC - "Rates of preterm delivery among Black women and White women in the United States over two decades: an age-period-cohort analysis" Am J Epidemiol. 154:657–65 (2001)

Blackmore CA, Savitz DA, Edwards LJ, Harlow SD, Bowes WA., Jr 0 "Racial differences in the patterns of preterm delivery in central North Carolina, USA" Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 9:281–95 (1995)

In the 2007 to 2008 NHANES cohort, more than half of pregnant American women could be characterized as iodine insufficient based on urinary iodine concentration (Caldwell et al., 2011).
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