Note: ERK1/2 is activated via Gq/11.
Zhao L, Su J, Liu S, Li Y, Xi T, Ruan J, Liang KX, Huang R - "MAP kinase phosphatase MKP-1 regulates p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway with fluoride treatment" Biochem Biophys Res Commun 542:65-72 (2021)
Dental fluorosis is characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation. Excess fluoride could have effects on the ERK signaling, which is essential for the ameloblasts differentiation and tooth development. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) plays a critical role in regulating ERK related kinases. However, the role of MKP-1 in ameloblast and the mechanisms of MKP-1/ERK signaling in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis are incompletely understood. Here, we adopted an in vitro fluorosis cell model using murine ameloblasts-like LS8 cells by employing sodium fluoride (NaF) as inducer. Using this system, we demonstrated that fluoride exposure led to an inhibition of p-MEK and p-ERK1/2 with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. We further identified, under high dose fluoride, MKP-1 acted as a negative regulator of the fluoride-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling, leading to downregulation of CREB, c-myc, and Elk-1. Our results identify a novel MKP-1/ERK signaling mechanism that regulates dental fluorosis and provide a framework for studying the molecular mechanisms of intervention and fluorosis remodeling under normal and pathological conditions. MKP-1 inhibitors may prove to be a benefit therapeutic strategy for dental fluorosis treatment.
"In this study, after exposing mice to NaF, ERK1/2 expression increased significantly, suggesting that fluoride mediates apoptosis in thyroid follicular epithelial cells through the sustained activation of ERK1/2. The daily administration of 50 mg/kg GABA over 14 days significantly inhibited ERK1/2, demonstrating that GABA mitigates fluoride-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of ERK1/2."
Yang H, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Li P - "Analysis of the protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid during fluoride-induced hypothyroidism in male Kunming mice" Pharm Biol 57(1):29-37 (2019)
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