Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR - "Early biomarkers of cadmium exposure and nephrotoxicity" BioMetals 23(5):793-809 (2010)
http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 8-2#page-1
As the risks of cadmium (Cd)-induced kidney disease have become increasingly apparent, much attention has been focused on the development and use of sensitive biomarkers of Cd nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the current state of Cd biomarker research. The review includes overviews of the toxicokinetics of Cd, the mechanisms of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury, and mechanistic summaries of some of the biomarkers (N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamidase; β2-microglubulin, metallothionein, etc.) that have been most widely used in monitoring of human populations for Cd exposure and nephrotoxicity. In addition, several novel biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1, α-glutathione-S-transferase and insulin) that offer the potential for improved biomonitoring of Cd-exposed populations are discussed.
Mottled teeth just like "fluorosis"...
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