Cadmium + Fluorosis

Mottled teeth just like "fluorosis"...
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Cadmium + Fluorosis

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Xiao T, Tang J, Lei J, Yang F - "Health risk of Cadmium: A hidden
health killer in areas of coal combustion related fluorosis?"
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(12): A1042 (2008)
Sichuan Southeast Geological Survey, Chongqing, 400038
(*correspondence: ... /A1042.pdf

Coal-combustion related chronic fluorine toxication, a
specific endemic disease occurred in China, has been causing
serious health problems with teeth and bone damages in the
Three Gorges region, China, which was attributed for the
intake of elevated levels of fluoride emitted through domestic
combustion of high fluorine coal, often without stoves or
chimneys in the house. However, recent epidemical study
found that the fluorosis in the coal-combustion related
endemic disease areas in Three Gorges region was not
significantly alleviated, but in some specific areas, the number
of population with symptom of fluorosis, i.e. teeth and bone
problems, showed increasing tendency. Our recent study
found that the endemic disease areas showed high cadmium
(Cd) concentrations in the environment and in the urine and
hair substrates of the local population. We determined high
concentrations of Cd in the local black shales (77.3-212.2
ppm), domestic coals (11.5-54.5 ppm) and arable soils (1.07-
59.7 ppm), showing obvious geochemical anomaly. The high
Cd in the local environment also contributed to high Cd in the
local human substrates, i.e. 6.73 ppm in hair and 5.1 µg/L in
urine on average.

The studies for toxicological effects of F and Cd on human
demonstrated that the patients suffered from F and Cd
toxication had similar clinical symptom, such as yellow
macula on teeth and body bone damages, although the
symptoms occurred different extents each other due to diverse
exposures and nutritional conditions.
Therefore, we
hypothesized that Cd is a hidden health killer to affect the
local endemic disease of the coal-combustion related fluorosis.
Our hypothesis was supported by the recent epidemical
finding (2003-2007) that the fluorosis in the coal-combustion
related endemic disease areas in Three Gorges region was not
significantly alleviated but the size of epidemical areas tended
to be more overspreading.

Tang J, Xiao T, Wang S, Lei J, Zhang M, Gong Y, Li H, Ning Z, He L - "High
cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: a serious hidden toxin?" Chemosphere 76(3):300-5 (2009) ... 3509003968

The accumulation of Cd in human bodies tends to cause health
problems, and particularly dental and skeletal damages. However,
the presence of these problems in the study area has conventionally been explained solely by fluorosis, and the contribution of
Cd was not previously recognized.....In the study area, half of the urine samples had F contents within the normal range for an unexposed population, but all samples revealed Cd levels higher than those in the control population and unexposed populations.
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