Cadmiosis = Fluorosis

Mottled teeth just like "fluorosis"...
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Cadmiosis = Fluorosis

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Although fluoride is thought to be the sole agent responsible for the enamel condition known as "mottled enamel", numerous other substances have shown to cause identical enamel conditions.

These include cadmium (Wilson et al. 1939, 1940, 1941) and TSH (DeEds et al, 1941).

It was in 1939 that the journal "Science" first published the findings of Wilson and De Eds (USDA) that cadmium was able to produce the exact same effects on teeth ("mottled teeth") as had been previously observed with fluoride (Wilson & DeEds, 1939).

Wilson et al. confirmed their original findings in 1941, this time researching "continued cadmium feeding" (Wilson et al., 1941). The degree of bleaching was proportional to the dosage. When animals were exposed to both cadmium and fluoride, the effects were much more pronounced.

In 1942 these findings were further confirmed by Dale et al. and discussed at the 20th General Meeting of the IADR (Dale et al., 1942).

Dentists, meanwhile, although fully aware of these toxicological findings, started to investigate if cadmium would thus also be able to "reduce caries, like fluoride".

Leiscester, in 1946, while confirming the earlier observations by Wilson et al., reported that caries was not reduced - it actually increased (Leiscester, 1946), as was reported earlier by Ginn & Volker (1944). While cadmium did not increase the number of caries lesions, it increased the rate at which caries progresses.

(Of course this is now also known about "dental fluorosis". Over 50 studies in the last 20 years have confirmed that children suffering from mild to moderate fluorosis have an increase in caries, as well as more caries severity. Click here: ... aries.html )

In 1955, Wisotzky and Hein further confirmed cadmium’s effects on tooth enamel, this time in syrian hamsters (Wisotzky & Hein, 1955).

More recently, Chinese investigations in endemic fluorosis areas caused by coal burning have demonstrated the effects of cadmium (Xiao et al, 2008; Tang et al, 2009).

In 2020, Arab-Nozari and colleagues demonstrated that co-exposure to non-toxic levels of cadmium and fluoride potentiated their individual toxic effects on liver tissue (Arab-Nozari et al., 2020).


Cadmium is an established anti-thyroid agent.

Animal experiments have shown that cadmium inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 by inhibiting D1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in liver (Gupta & Kar, 1999, 1998; Gupta, 1997; Chaurasia et al, 1996).

Depending on dose and thyroid status, cadmium - like fluoride - may also increase T4 to T3 conversion, and is able to cause T3 toxicosis (Ghosh & Bhattacharya).

Skeletal FluorosisImage
[Image by Kasi Viswanath Ivaturi]

Itai-Itai Disease (Cadmium)Image
[Image by Ayşe Handan Dökmeci]


Arab-Nozari M, Mohammadi E, Shokrzadeh M, Ahangar N, Amiri FT, Shaki F - "Co-exposure to non-toxic levels of cadmium and fluoride induces hepatotoxicity in rats via triggering mitochondrial oxidative damage, apoptosis, and NF-kB pathways" Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 27(19):24048-24058 (2020)

Barr CG, Reuszer HW, Thorp F Jr - "The chemical composition of Suckleya Suckleyana" - Science 90: 497 - 498 (1939)

Chaurasia SS, Gupta P, Kar A, Maiti PK - “Free radical mediated membrane perturbation and inhibition of type-I iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase activity by lead and cadmium in rat liver homogenate” Biochem Mol Biol Int 39(4):765-70 (1996)

Dale P, Ginn JT, Volker JE - "Some observations on the effect of cadmium on the dentition of the rat" International Association for Dental Research: Proceedings of the Twentieth General Meeting, the Commodore, New York, NY, March 14 and 15, 1942; J Dent Res 21: 285 - 351 (1942)

De Eds F, Wilson RH, Cutting WC - "Thyrotropic hormone and fluorine activity" Endocrinology 26(6):1053-1056 (1940)

Deveci S, Deveci E - "Histopathological Changes in Incisive Teeth of the Newborn Pups of Cadmium-Applied Female Rats during Pregnancy" Int. J. Morphol (2010)

English JA - "Experimental effects of thiouracil and selenium on the teeth and jaws of dogs" J Dent Res 28:172-194 (1949)

Ghosh N, Bhattacharya S - "Thyrotoxicity of the chlorides of cadmium and mercury in rabbit" Biomed Environ Sci 5(3):236-40 (1992)
"It is suggested that T3-toxicosis may be produced by a preferential synthesis of T3 and/or preferential deiodination of T4 to T3. Measurement of T3 and T4 levels may thus be utilized as a reliable indicator of heavy metal lethality."

Ginn JT, Volker JF - "Effect of Cadmium and Fluorine on the Rat Dentition" Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 57(2):189-191 (1944)
(From the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry)

Gupta P, Kar A - "Cadmium induced thyroid dysfunction in chicken: hepatic type I iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase activity and role of lipid peroxidation" Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 123(1):39-44 (1999) ... t=Abstract

Gupta P, Kar A - "Role of ascorbic acid in cadmium-induced thyroid dysfunction and lipid peroxidation" J Appl Toxicol 18(5):317-20 (1998) ... t=Abstract

Gupta P, Chaurasia SS, Maiti PK, Kar A - "Cadmium induced alterations in extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine by type-I iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase in male mouse" Horm Metab Res 29(3):151-2 (1997)

Hammouda F - "Reversal of cadmium-induced thyroid dysfunction by selenium, zinc, of their combination in rat" Biol Trace Elem Res 126(1-3):194-203 (2008)

Katsuta O, Hiratsuka H, Matsumoto J, Tsuchitani M, Umemura T - "Cadmium-induced dental lesions in ovariectomized rats" Toxicol Pathol. 24(4):451-7 (1996)

Johnson MD, Kenney N, Stoica A, Hilakiva-Clarke L, Singh B, Chepkko B, Clarke R, Sholler PF, Lirio AA, Foss C, Reiter R, Trock B, Paik S, Marin MB - "Cadmium mimics the in-vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland" Nature Medicine (July 2003) LINK

Lafuente A, Blanco A, Marquez N, Alvarez-Demanuel E, Esquifino AI - "Effects of acute and subchronic cadmium administration on pituitary hormone secretion in rat" Rev Esp Fisiol 53(3):265-9 (1997) ... t=Abstract

Leiscester H - "The effect of cadmium on dental caries in the rat" International Association for Dental Research: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth General Meeting, Continental Hotel, Kansas City, Missouri, March 16 and 17, 1944, J Dent Res 25: 151 - 192 (1946)

Leicester HM - "The effects of cadmium on the production of caries in the rat" J Dent Res 25:337-340 (1946)

Li ZH, Chen L, Wu YH, Li P, Li YF, Ni ZH - "Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae" Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 161:53-7 (2014)

Mohammed TM -"Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium" Toxicol Ind Health (2013)

Pavia Junior MA, Paier B, Noli MI, Hagmuller K, Zaninovich AA - "Evidence suggesting that cadmium induces a non-thyroidal illness syndrome in the rat" J Endocrinol 154(1):113-7 (1997) ... t=Abstract

Rosati MV, Montuori L, Caciari T, Sacco C, Marrocco M, Tomei G, Scala B, Sancini A, Anzelmo V, Bonomi S, Tomei F - "Correlation between urinary cadmium and thyroid hormones in outdoor workers exposed to urban stressors" Toxicol Ind Health pii: 0748233715602833 (2015) ... ormat=text

Segal J - "In vivo effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine on calcium uptake in several tissues in the rat: evidence for a physiological role for calcium as the first messenger for the prompt action of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane" Endocrinology 127(1):17-24 (1990) ... t=Abstract

The Scientific Proceedings of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Incorporated: Thirty-Second Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, April 15-19, 1941 J Pharmacol Exp Ther 72(1-47 (1941)

Tang J, Xiao T, Wang S, Lei J, Zhang M, Gong Y, Li H, Ning Z, He L - "High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: a serious hidden toxin?" Chemosphere 76(3):300-5 (2009) ... 950167.pdf

Tamura Y, Wysocki GP, Cherian MG - "Immunohistochemical localization of metallothionein in the developing teeth of cadmium-injected rats" Arch Oral Biol 44(1):49-53 (1999)

Wilson RH, De Eds F, Cox AJ - "Effects of continued cadmium feeding" US Dept. of Agriculture, Dept of Pharmacology, Dept of Pathology (1940) [in PFPC DATABASE]

Wilson RH, DeEds F, Cox AJ Jr, - "Effects of continued cadmium feeding" J Pharmacol Exp Ther 71: 222 - 235 (1941) [in PFPC DATABASE]

Wilson RH, DeEds F - "Experimental cadmium poisoning" Science 90: 498 (1939)

De Eds F, Wilson RH, Cutting WC - "Thyrotropic hormone and fluorine activity" Endocrinology 26(6):1053-1056 (1940)

Wisotzky J, Hein JW - "The effects of of solutions of cadmium sulfate and lead acetate on the incisor pigmentation, fur color, and blood in male and female syrian hamsters" International Association for Dental Research proceedings of the Thirty-Third General Meeting, Chicago, Illinois March 18, 19 and 20; J Dent Res 34: 666 - 775 (1955)

Yoshida K, Sugihira N, Suzuki M, Sakurada T, Saito S, Yoshinaga K, Saito H - "Effect of cadmium on T4 outer ring monodeiodination by rat liver" Environ Res 42(2):400-5 (1987)

Yoshizuka M, Mori N, Hamasaki K, Tanaka I, Yokoyama M, Hara K, Doi Y, Umezu Y, Araki H, Sakamoto Y, et al - "Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats" Exp Mol Pathol 55(1):97-104 (1991)

Xiao T, Tang J, Lei J, Yang F - "Health risk of Cadmium: A hidden health killer in areas of coal combustion related fluorosis?"
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(12): A1042 (2008)

see also:

Gerhard I, Runnebaum B - "The limits of hormone substitution in pollutant exposure and fertility disorders" Zentralbl Gynakol 114(12):593-602 (1992)
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