2013 - Fluoride and goiter

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2013 - Fluoride and goiter

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Meng F, Zhao R, Liu P, Liu L, Liu S - "Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China" PLoS One 8(11):e81294 (2013)
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/artic ... ne.0081294
"Fluoride, a goitrogenic substance in drinking water, is another contributing factor to high GP (goitre prevalence). The fluoride concentration of drinking water was as high as 1.00 mg/kg in Chongqing municipality, which led Chongqing to have the highest GP (18.37%, 18 of 98) amongst all study areas."

"However, it was believed that FT4 screening might be a more sensitive index for monitoring IDD, assess iodine nutrition and prevent hypothyroxinemia. The TSH value decreased and subsequently increased with the elevation of UI, except in lactating women (part of iodine was lost through breast milk excretion), and formed a “U curve” relationship in children, adults and pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism was likely to occur more easily in the populations with iodine intakes above and below the reference range. The median of TSH level was 2.79 mIU/L in children, which was higher than the other 3 groups of population. The rate of subclinical hypothyroidism was also higher in children than in the other 3 groups of population. When UI stood at 200-299.9 µg/L, the TSH value was found lowest in children, adults and pregnant women. So should subclinical hypothyroidism prevention is our goal, the UI level probably needs to be controlled under 300 µg/L."
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