Arakawa Y, Bhawal UK, Ikoma T, Kimoto K, Kuroha K, Kubota T, Hamada N, Kubota E, Arakawa H - "Low concentration fluoride stimulates cell motility of epithelial cells in vitro" Biomed Res 30(5):271-7 (2009)

Bhawal UK, Lee HJ, Arikawa K, Shimosaka M, Suzuki M, Toyama T, Sato T, Kawamata R, Taguchi C, Hamada N, Nasu I, Arakawa H, Shibutani K - "Micromolar sodium fluoride mediates anti-osteoclastogenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss" Int J Oral Sci 18
(7):242-9 (2015)

Jenq SF, Jap TS, Hsieh MS, Chiang H - "The characterization of adenyl cyclase activity in FRTL-5 cell line." Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 51(3):159-65  (1993)

  • RATS: "Sodium fluoride stimulation study demonstrated dual actions of fluoride on adenylate cyclase; when the cells were assayed with increasing concentration of NaF, the AC activity increased as the concentration of NaF increased from 0.01 to 1 mM, but decreased strikingly as that concentration increased from 1 mM to 100 mM....
    When the concentration of nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogs increased in the presence of TSH, there was first an increase in adenylate cyclase activity, followed by a decrease at higher concentration." [Fisher rat thyroid cell line]

Naka T, Maruyama S, Nagao T, Takayama F, Maki J, Yasui T, Sakagami H, Ohkawa S - "Inhibition of branching morphogenesis of mouse fetal submandibular gland by sodium fluoride--protection by epidermal growth factor" In Vivo 19(2):327-34 (2005)

  • "At a lower concentration of NaF (< 2 microM), the branching morphogenesis was slightly enhanced, whereas at a higher concentration of NaF (4 - 8 microM), it was almost completely inhibited. The inhibitory effect of NaF at the higher concentration was abrogated by stimultaneous addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or insulin-like growth factor(IGF). These data demonstrate that EGF can effectively reduce the cytotoxic activity of NaF at micromolar concentration."

Shahed AR, Miller A, Allmann DW - "Effect of fluorine containing compounds on the activity of glycolytic enzymes in rat hepatocytes" Biochem Biophys Res Commun 94(3):901-8 (1980)

  • "...However, as little as 0.05-0.15 mM NaF induced a significant increase in cAMP production. It was also found that NaF would alter the production of glucose in isolated rat hepatocytes. When hepatocytes from fed rats were incubated with 0.05-5 mM NaF there was an increase in amount of glucose released from endogenous sources. Also NaF resulted in a decrease in lactate and pyruvate production. Similarly NaF stimulated glucose production in hepatocytes from fasted rats. The maximal stimulation was observed with about 0.15-0.25 mM NaF. At NaF concentrations greater than 1.5 mM a decrease in glucose production was observed. It is concluded that NaF increases the level of cAMP and alters glucose metabolism in intact hepatocytes."

Thaweboon S, Thaweboon B, Chunhabundit P, Suppukpatana P - "Effect of fluoride on human dental pulp cells in vitro"  Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34(4):915-8 (2003) PMID: 15115110

Yan Q, Zhang Y, Li W, Denbesten PK - "Micromolar fluoride alters ameloblast lineage cells in vitro" J Dent Res 86(4):336-40 (2007)

    "Fluoride had a biphasic effect on cell proliferation, with enhanced proliferation at 16 microM, and reduced proliferation at greater than 1 mM F...Flow cytometry showed that both 10 microM and 20 microM NaF significantly increased the apoptotic index of ameloblast-lineage cells." 

Xu H, Zhou YL, Zhang JM, Liu H, Jing L, Li GS - "Effects of fluoride on the intracellular free Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase of kidney" Biol Trace Elem Res 116(3):279-88 (2007) doi: 10.1007/BF02698012. PMID: 17709908

    "Results showed the significantly elevated activity of Ca2+-ATPase in the cells exposed to 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L fluoride (p < 0.05), and this enzyme activity indicated inhibitory trend in cells of the 7.5- and 12.5-mg/L fluoride-treated group. To sum up, the effect of fluoride on Ca2+-ATPase is a similar to a dose-effect relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and the increase of [Ca2+]i probably plays a key role on the mechanism of renal injury in fluorosis."  [Gq/11]



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