2013 - Drinking water: F- and I excretion correlation

2013 - Drinking water: F- and I excretion correlation

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2013 9:05 am

129. 饮用水氟碘正常区碘氟排泄相关性研究 2013年6月下
http://www.cmed.org.cn/html/65/n-20965.html
Sun Ning et al. - "Correlation of fluoride and iodine in drinking water on excretion of iodine and fluoride in a normal area" Modern Medicine (6) (2013)

NOTE: F- in water!

[摘要] 目的 研究饮用水氟碘正常区降低碘摄入量对氟的排泄的影响。方法 对调查点饮用水氟碘正常区人群360户居民停供碘盐两个月,测定停碘开始及2个月时尿氟、尿碘含量,分析相关性。结果 停供碘盐后,尿碘配对差值中位数为95.86μg/L,t=7.78,P<0.01。尿氟配对差值中位数为-0.15mg/L,t=-3.31,P<0.01。结论 停供碘盐后,调查点人群尿碘含量显著降低,同时,尿氟含量显著增加,性别间无差异,表明碘和氟在体内的排出有相互拮抗作用。
[关键词] 尿碘;尿氟;排泄;相关性
[Abstract] Objective To study the change of urine fluoride excretion after decreasing the iodine intake in the area where the iodine and fluorine content is normal. Methods Stop iodized salt supply of 360 residents at the survey point for two nonths.Determine the urine fluoride and urine iodine when the study beginning ang two months later.Analysis the correlation. Results After stopping to supply iodized salt, median urine iodine paired difference is 95.86g / L, t=7.78,P<0.01. The median urine fluoride paired difference is -0.15mg / L,t=-3.31,P<0.01. Conclusion After stopping to supply iodized salt, urine iodine content of the study population significantly reduced. At the same time, the urine fluoride content increased significantly and there is no difference between male and female. The results show that the discharge between iodine and fluoride in the body can antagonistic each other.
随着地方病防治研究工作的不断深入,饮用水高氟高碘区重合的状况日趋明显,氟、碘同为卤族元素,化学性质相近,在一定条件下对靶器官的影响可表现拮抗或相同两种作用。近年来,碘氟间的相互作用受到研究者的重视[1],而碘、氟在体内的排泄规律仍不清晰。我们选择饮用水氟、碘含量都正常[2]、居民长期食用加碘盐的氟、碘非病区进行干预研究,探讨碘、氟排泄的规律。现将有关结果报道如下。
1.1 一般资料 选择河南省黄河北岸的武陟县嘉应观乡南嘉村为观察点,以该村360户650名常住居民为研究对象,对其停供碘盐,改用研究者提供的非碘盐观察2个月,检测其停碘盐时及2个月时尿碘、尿氟水平。研究开始时采集一次性晨尿,停碘2个月再次采集一次性晨尿。
该村为分散式供水,采集参加研究居民家庭饮用水,测定饮水中碘、氟含量。
1.2 检测方法 尿碘采用过硫酸铵消化分光光度法(WS/T 107-2006),水碘采用国家碘缺乏病参照实验室推荐使用的砷铈分光光度法,水氟、尿氟测定均采用离子选择电极法。
采样人员在采样前全部经过培训,样品由河南省疾病预防控制中心地方病防治所实验室负责检测。
2 结果
2.1 饮用水碘、氟含量检测结果 该村饮用水碘范围在4.30~77.2μg/L,中位数为28.15μg/L,该村饮用水氟范围为0.42~0.95μg/L,平均0.73μg/L。
2.2 研究对象停供碘盐前后的尿碘、尿氟结果 对两次测定结果按研究对象分别进行对应,剔除不可配对者余390人,停供碘盐前尿碘中位数为294.02μg/L,停碘2个月后尿碘中位数为198.16μg/L。停碘前尿氟中位数为1.42μg/L,停碘后尿氟中位数为1.57μg/L。结果见表1。
表1 停供碘盐前后尿碘、尿氟中位数变化情况
组别 尿碘 尿氟
停碘前 294.02 1.42
停碘后 198.16 1.57
2.3 停供碘盐前后人群尿碘(氟)配对差值t检验 停供碘盐前后尿碘差中位数为95.86μg/L,t=7.78,P<0.01,说明停供碘盐后尿碘排泄明显减少;尿氟差中位数为-0.15μg/L,t=-3.11,P<0.01,说明停供碘盐后尿氟排泄量增加。结果见表2。
表2 停供碘盐前后尿碘差、尿氟差统计表
组别 中位数 t值 P值
停碘前后尿碘差 95.86 7.78 0.000
停碘前后尿氟差 -0.15 -3.11 0.002
2.4 停供碘盐前后尿碘、尿氟差性别间比较 停碘前后尿碘差性别间比较F=1.456,P>0.05,停碘前后尿氟差性别间比较 F=0.116,P>0.05,可见,尿碘、尿氟的排泄与性别无关,结果见表3。
表3 尿碘、尿氟差性别间配对比较
组别 性别 人数 F值 df P值
尿碘差 男 217 1.456 388 0.584
女 173
尿氟差 男 217 0.030 388 0.116
女 173
3 讨论
3.1 碘、氟是人体必需的微量元素,过量摄入碘和氟[3]及碘摄入量不足对人体产生的危害已众所周知。本次研究结果显示:观察区域饮用水碘中位数为28.15μg/L,水氟均值为0.73μg/L,属于饮水碘、氟正常区。在停供碘盐前该区人群尿碘中位数达到294.02μg/L,说明该区人群碘营养水平正常。停碘两个月后尿碘中位数为198.16μg/L,说明停供碘盐短时间内该区人群碘营养仍处于正常状态。
3.2 目前研究结果显示,碘、氟在体内具有相互拮抗作用,碘可降低氟对儿童智力及甲状腺的损伤[4,7]。动物实验表明,碘对氟所致的小鼠肾细胞线粒体损伤及小鼠脑功能损伤均有拮抗作用[6,8],可见,研究氟碘在不同饮水浓度下的排泄规律具有现实的必要性[5]。宁夏的研究发现,水氟与水碘含量具有相关性,但与尿碘、尿氟的中位数不相关[9]。本研究发现,在减少碘摄入、氟摄入不变的情况下,随着尿碘排出的减少,尿氟排出在增加,这提示氟、碘在体内的排泄有明确的拮抗作用,这与周伯钦[10]研究结果相同。对不同性别间尿碘、尿氟排泄分析,结果显示,性别间无显著性差异。
根据本次观察,我们认为,为减少和控制氟危害,在高氟地区调整碘盐浓度,使碘摄入达到最低人体需要量,提高机体对氟的排出。在以降氟改水为主要防治饮水型地方性氟中毒措施的地区,也应将水碘含量作为一项主要参考指标。
参考文献
[1] 刘国艳,柴春彦,康世良.氟、硒、碘生物学相关效应的研究进展[J].上海畜牧兽医通讯,2001(5):9-10.
[2] GB 5749-2006生活饮用水卫生标准;GB/T19380—2003水源性高碘地区和地方性高碘甲状腺肿病区的划定;GB/T16005-1995碘缺乏病(IDD)病区划分标准.
[3] 国秀娟,单忠艳,滕卫平.氟过量与碘氟过量对甲状腺功能和形态影响的实验研究[J].中华内科学杂志,2006,45(10):846-847.
[4] 王秀红,王玲芳,胡丕英,等.高碘与高氟对儿童智力及甲状腺功能的影响[J].中国地方病学杂志,2001,20(4):288-290.
[5] 洪福贵,王会,杨冬,等.高碘高氟地区儿童智力及碘氟代谢水平的调查研究[J].中国地方病防治杂志,2001,16(1):12-14.
[6] 章子贵,许晓路,申秀英,等.碘硒对氟致小鼠肾脏细胞线粒体损伤的影响[J].浙江师范大学学报(自然科学版),2002,25(4):395-397.
[7] 申秀英,章子贵,许晓路.碘硒对氟致小鼠脑功能损伤的保护作用实验[J].卫生毒理学杂志,2002,16(2):94-95.
[8] 金在圣.氟与碘缺乏病[J].中国地方病学杂志,2002,21(5)419-421.
[9] 郑振兴.宁夏某县饮用水碘、氟、硒含量与小学生尿碘的相关性分析[J].宁夏医学杂志,2011,33(2):128-130.
[10] 周伯钦,王武林,庄景凡.尿氟与尿碘的相关性分析[J].现代预防医学,2008,35(17):3411-3412.
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1.1 General Information north shore of the Yellow River in Henan Province Jiayingguan wuzhi Village Township Namgyal observation point to the village 360 650 permanent residents as the research object, its stop for salt, researchers use a non-iodine salt observed two months, testing iodized salt when it stops at 2 months and urinary iodine, urinary fluoride levels. One morning when the study began collecting urine iodine two months to stop once again collected morning urine.
The village of decentralized water supply, households participating in the study collected drinking water, determination of iodine in drinking water, fluoride content.
1.2 Detection of urinary iodine using ammonium persulfate digestion spectrophotometry (WS / T 107-2006), water iodine deficiency disorders using national reference laboratory recommended arsenic cerium spectrophotometry, water fluoride, fluoride in urine were measured using ion selective electrode method.
All sampling personnel trained prior to sampling, sample by the Henan Provincial Disease Prevention Control Center is responsible for endemic diseases laboratory testing.
2 Results
2.1 drinking iodine, fluorine content of village drinking water test results in the range of iodine 4.30 ~ 77.2μg / L, with a median of 28.15μg / L, the village drinking water fluoride range of 0.42 ~ 0.95μg / L, an average of 0.73 μg / L.
2.2 Research object before stopping iodized salt in the urine iodine, urinary fluoride results of two measurements were carried out by correspondence study, excluding those who can not be matched more than 390 people, before stopping iodized salt median urinary iodine was 294.02μg / L , two months after stopping iodine median urinary iodine 198.16μg / L. Parked in front of iodine median urinary fluoride 1.42μg / L, after stopping urine fluoride iodine median 1.57μg / L. The results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Urinary iodine before stopping iodized salt, median urinary fluoride changes
of urinary iodine urinary fluoride group
stopped in front of iodine 294.02 1.42
1.57 198.16 after stopping iodine
2.3 crowd before stopping iodized salt urinary iodine (fluorine) paired t-test the difference before and after stopping iodized salt median urinary iodine poor 95.86μg / L, t = 7.78, P <0.01, illustrate urinary iodine after stopping iodized salt excretion was significantly reduced; poor median urinary fluoride-0.15μg / L, t = -3.11, P <0.01, explained after stopping iodized salt increased urinary fluoride excretion. The results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 before stopping iodized salt urinary iodine poor, poor urine fluoride tables
group the median t value P value
after stopping urinary iodine iodine poor 95.86 7.78 0.000
parked iodine difference before and after the urine fluoride 0.002 -0.15 -3.11
2.4 urinary iodine before stopping iodized salt, urine fluoride difference between male and female urinary iodine before and after comparison stops iodine gender difference comparison between F = 1.456, P> 0.05, stop iodine gender difference before and after comparison between urine fluoride F = 0.116, P> 0.05, visible , urinary iodine excretion of urinary fluoride unrelated to sex, the results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 urinary iodine, fluorine difference between male and female urinary paired comparison
group sex number F-value df P value
of urinary iodine poor man 217 1.456 388 0.584
173 female
male urinary fluoride Poor 217 0.030 388 0.116
173 women
3 Discussion
3.1 iodine, fluorine is an essential trace element, excessive intake of iodine and fluorine [3] and insufficient iodine intake of harm to the human body are well known. The study results showed that: the observation area drinking water iodine median 28.15μg / L, water fluoride mean 0.73μg / L, are drinking iodine, fluorine normal area. In the area before stopping iodized salt population median urinary iodine reached 294.02μg / L, the area described iodine nutrition levels were normal. Two months after stopping iodine median urinary iodine was 198.16μg / L, a short description of the area stop for iodized salt iodine nutrition is still in the normal state.
3.2 the present study showed that iodine, fluorine mutual antagonism in vivo, iodine can reduce fluoride on children's intelligence and thyroid damage [4,7]. Animal experiments showed that iodine fluoride induced mitochondrial damage in mouse kidney cells and mouse brain dysfunction were antagonistic effect [6,8], can be seen in a different study of drinking water fluoride concentrations of iodine excretion of law has a practical necessity [5]. Ningxia study found that water fluoride and water iodine content is relevant, but urinary iodine, fluorine median urinary irrelevant [9]. The study found that, in reducing the intake of iodine, fluorine intake unchanged, with the reduction of discharged urine iodine, an increase in the discharge of urine fluoride, suggesting fluorine, iodine excretion in vivo antagonism of a clear, which Zhoubo Qin [10] studied the same result. Urinary iodine of different sexes, urinary fluoride excretion analysis, the results showed no significant gender differences.
According to the observations, we believe that, in order to reduce and control the fluorine hazards, adjust salt concentration in high fluoride areas, so that the body iodine intake reached a minimum requirement, improve the body of fluoride excretion. Change in dynasty fluoride drinking water as the main prevention measures in endemic fluorosis areas, should also be used as a water iodine content in the main reference index.
References
[1] Liuguo Yan, Chai Chunyan, Kang Shiliang. fluorine, selenium, iodine and biologically relevant effects research [J]. Shanghai Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, 2001 (5) :9-10.
[2] GB 5749-2006 Drinking Water Standards; GB/T19380-2003 water-iodine goiter and endemic iodine area delimitation of wards; GB/T16005-1995 iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) Ward division standard.
[3] State Xiujuan , SHAN Zhong Yan, Endocrinology and Metabolism. fluorine and iodine excess fluoride overdose on thyroid function and morphology in rats [J]. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, 2006,45 (10) :846-847.
[4] WANG Xiu, Lingfang Hu Pi Ying , etc. iodine and fluoride on children's intelligence and thyroid function [J]. Chinese Journal of Medicine, 2001,20 (4) :288-290.
[5] Hong Fugui, the king will, Yang Dong, et al. iodine fluoride areas and children's intelligence levels of iodine and fluoride metabolic research [J]. Chinese Endemic Disease Control, 2001,16 (1) :12-14.
[6] Zhang Zi expensive, XU Xiao Lu, Shen Xiuying, et al. iodine and selenium on Fluoride in mouse kidney mitochondria injury [J]. Zhejiang Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2002,25 (4) :395-397.
[7] Shen Xiuying, Zhang Zi-Gui, XU Xiao Lu. iodine and selenium on fluoride induced Brain Function injury experiments [J]. Journal of Health Toxicology, 2002,16 (2) :94-95.
[8] Kim St. fluorine and iodine deficiency disorders [J]. Chinese Journal of Medicine, 2002,21 (5) 419-421.
[9] Zheng Zhenxing Ningxia county drinking water iodine, fluorine, selenium and iodine in urine pupils Correlation Analysis [J]. Ningxia Medical Journal, 2011,33 (2): 128-130.
[10] Zhoubo Qin, Wang Wulin, Zhuang Jing Van urine fluoride and urinary iodine correlation analysis [J]. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008,35 (17) :3411-3412.
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