Meng F, Zhao R, Liu P, Liu L, Liu S- "Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China" PLoS One. 2013 Nov 25;8(11):e81294. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081294. eCollection
2013. PubMed PMID: 24282581; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3840003.
"Fluoride, a goitrogenic substance in drinking water, is another contributing factor to high GP (goitre prevalence). The fluoride concentration of drinking water was as high as 1.00 mg/kg in Chongqing municipality, which led Chongqing to have the highest GP (18.37%, 18 of 98) amongst all study areas. UIC was found to be above the requirement or at excessive level, which was likely responsible for the possible risk of thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and goiter ."