"Asthma & Fluoride"

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"Asthma & Fluoride"

Postby pfpcnews » Sat Aug 03, 2013 7:22 am

"Asthma & Fluoride"
©2002 PFPC


1) Asthma Facts:

Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and generally develops by five years of age.

Asthma affects an estimated 4.8 million US children under the age of 18.

Since the early 1980's, national asthma rates for children have risen by more than 33 percent.

The severity of disease symptoms also continues to increase, as do hospitalizations and mortality rates.

From 1980 to 1993, the asthma death rate nearly doubled among 5-24 year olds. Another survey showed a 46% increase in death rate nationwide from asthma between 1l977 and 1991 (Philadelphia Inquirer, Dec.8:A22 (1994).

Asthma is at least 20 percent more common among black children than white children. Black children experience more severe disability from asthma are three to four times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma are six times more likely to die from asthma.

Asthma is the leading cause of school absenteeism related to a chronic illness. Hartford children have the highest rate of asthma in Connecticut, and incidence is increasing. In 1994, one in three Hartford children had asthma, up from one in five in 1980.

In New Haven, according to SAHA (Social and Health Assessment Survey, 1996), 22 percent of 6th, 8th and 10th graders had been told by a doctor that they had asthma and 13 percent had to go to an emergency room to be treated for asthma.

Between 1991 and 1996, asthma-related hospital discharges in Connecticut increased by more than 30 percent.

2) The Costs of Asthma

Direct costs include childhood hospitalizations, visits to the emergency room, and medications. The 4.8 million children nationally who suffer from asthma account for 12 million visits to healthcare providers, 16 million emergency room visits, and 200,000 hospitalizations each year.

Indirect costs include lost productivity of parents or guardians, child absenteeism from school, and the non-quantifiable costs of anxiety, apprehension and other quality of life issues.

One study found that American children with asthma lose an extra 10 million school days each year, over 55 percent of the total days of restricted activity for the entire population. This problem is compounded by an estimated $1 billion in lost productivity for their working parents.

3) Fluoride - Cause of Asthma?

Numerous recent studies in workers exposed to fluorides, as well as children living near fluoride polluting industries have shown a direct correlation between fluoride levels in plasma/urine and asthma (Romundstad et al, 2000a, b; Soyseth et al, 1994;1995).

Already in 1986, investigating 253 North American Indian children 11 to 17 years of age living on the Akwasasne reserve, Ernst et al found a significant linear relationship between respiratory abnormalities and fluoride urine samples.

In 1995 Soyseth et al. reported that exposure to low fluoride concentrations during early childhood was associated with an increased
prevalence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness in schoolchildren.

Earlier Soyseth et al (1994) had reported that “a positive association was found between bronchial responsiveness and plasma fluoride levels, such that an increase in the plasma fluoride level of 10 ng/ml was associated with an increase in the dose-response slope by a factor of 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.17).

To put this figure in perspective:

In 8-16-year old Swiss students exposed to either drinking water fluoridation or salt fluoridation, the average fluoride concentration in plasma was 12.7 ng/ml (+/- 3.8)(Ziegler et al, 1991).

In 2000 Romundstad et al conducted a mortality analysis in aluminum workers exposed to fluorides and reported an association between exposure to fluorides and mortality from chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. Mortality from these diseases was associated with cumulative exposure to fluorides.

In 2001, Negoita et al. reported of increases in asthma and hypothyroidism among the Akwasasne natives.

What is the association of asthma with hypothyroidism?

As mentioned above, Soyseth et al showed that bronchial responsiveness was related to plasma fluoride levels. Bronchial responsiveness is regulated by thyroid hormones (T3). Higher plasma fluoride levels mean lower iodine (Free T3) levels. In the 1930s May and Litzka showed in great detail how fluoride reduced iodine levels in blood. The more iodine in the blood, the more fluoride had to be used. Armed with this knowledge, they treated thousands of patients effectively from hyperthyroidism caused by excess iodine intake (Basedow's Disease).

Giving this amount of fluoride to a normal person, this would bring about iodine deficiency, or reduced Free T3 levels.

Numerous studies have now shown that the continuing deficiency of thyroid hormones influences the development of the inflammatory component of asthma (Manzolli et al, 1999).

It comes therefore also as no surprise that T3 supplementation has shown great benefits in the treament of asthma (abdel Khalek et al, 1991).

See also: TB


abdel Khalek K, el Kholy M, Rafik M, Fathalla M, Heikal E - "Effect of triiodothyronine on cyclic AMP and pulmonary function tests in bronchial asthma" Asthma 28(6):425-31 (1991)

"... This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of triiodothyronine, determined by pulmonary function tests and c-AMP plasma and sputum levels, in asthmatic children. Twenty-three children clinically euthyroid and complaining of chronic bronchial asthma were given a triiodothyronine (T3) supply for a period of 30 days. Pulmonary function tests, plasma and sputum cyclic AMP and plasma T3 levels were performed prior to and after T3 therapy. Patients were requested to continue on their usual antiasthma medicines and to try reduction of the doses of the drugs they needed as possible. All patients tolerated well the T3 regimen without any adverse effect. They all reported at the end of the 30 days an obvious subjective improvement of their asthmatic conditions with a decrease in the number of exacerbations. Seven patients stopped their usual antiasthmatic medicines, being maintained on T3 only and 3 have decreased the amount of bronchodilators needed. A significant improvement of pulmonary function tests was noted in all patients. Also, significantly increased levels of plasma and sputum c-AMP were observed after T3 administration in comparison to the control and pretest values. No statistical differences were found in plasma T3 between the control and the patients either before or after T3 therapy. The study revealed that T3 administration to clinically euthyroid chronic asthmatic children induced a beneficial effect. This might be through improvement of c-AMP synthesis. T3 in the doses used is devoid of side effects, proves to be a useful adjuvant to classic antiasthma therapy, and may reduce the amount of bronchodilators needed."

Ernst P, Thomas D, Becklake MR - "Respiratory survey of North American Indian children living in proximity to an aluminum smelter" Am Rev Respir Dis 133(2):307-12 (1986)

We explored the relationship of respiratory symptoms and lung function to exposure to ambient air pollution consisting of particulate and gaseous fluorides. The subjects were 253 North American Indian children 11 to 17 yr of age living on the Akwasasne reserve, which is adjacent to an aluminum smelter. Among boys, closing volume (CV/VC%) was increased in those raised closest to the smelter as opposed to those having lived most of their lives farthest from this source of air pollution. In both sexes, there was a significant linear relationship between increasing CV/VC% and the amount of fluoride contained in a spot urine sample. We conclude that exposure to fluoride air pollution in the community may be associated with abnormalities in small airways. The implication of these abnormalities for future respiratory health is unknown.

Manzolli S, Macedo-Soares MF, Vianna EO, Sannomiya P - "Allergic airway inflammation in hypothyroid rats" J Allergy Clin Immunol 104(3 Pt 1):595-600 (1999)

May W - Die Basedowsche Krankheit - Jod und Fluor Edition Cantor, Aulendorf i.Wttbg.;393 references (1950)

Negoita S, Swamp L, Kelley B, Carpenter DO - "Chronic diseases surveillance of St. Regis Mohawk Health Service patients" J Public Health Manag Pract 7(1):84-91 (2001)

"A study of the distribution of some chronic diseases among the Akwesasne Mohawks was performed using computerized medical records of the St. Regis Mohawk Health Services Clinic. Prevalence proportions, annual incidence rates, and five-year incidence rates were computed for the period January 1, 1992 to January 1, 1997 for asthma, diabetes mellitus type II, hypothyroidism, and osteoarthritis. Hypothyroidism and diabetes showed higher age-specific prevalence than in the general U.S. population. Osteoarthritis was extremely frequent among people 60 years of age and older, and it may also be elevated in prevalence in relation to the U.S. general population. The incidence and prevalence trends of diabetes type II and osteoarthritis were stationary, but those for asthma and hypothyroidism showed increases over the study period. Morbidity from asthma and acquired hypothyroidism should be monitored in the future and investigated through analytic epidemiologic methods for a possible association with lifestyle and environmental factors."

PFPC:Akwesasne Mohawks

Refsnes M, Becher R, Lag M, Skuland T, Schwarze PE - "Fluoride-induced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 synthesis in human epithelial lung cells" Hum Exp Toxicol 18(11):645-52 (1999)

Exposure to fluorides has been associated with asthmatic symptoms among workers in the aluminium industry. In a recent experimental study hydrogen fluoride (HF) was found to induce a weak inflammatory response in humans. In the present study the potential of sodium fluoride (NaF) and HF to induce cytokine response was examined and how these responses are modulated by Al3+ in a human epithelial lung cell line (A549). Dose-response experiments showed a maximal release of IL-6 and IL-8 at a concentration of 5 mM NaF 24 h after addition. The responses to HF were of a similar magnitude as for NaF. Time-course experiments showed a NaF-induced IL-6 response at 5 h, whereas an IL-8 response was observed after 10 h. Cycloheximide treatment completely abolished the NaF-induced cytokine responses. A marked increase in the mRNA level for IL-6 was observed already 2 h after exposure to 5 mM NaF, and presumably is a prerequisite for the subsequent increase of IL-6. The fluoride-induced effects on IL-6 and IL-8 release were strongly reduced by pretreatment with deferoxamine (an Al3+-chelator), and enhanced by addition of Al3+. This indicates that an AlF4-- complex, a known activator of GTP-binding proteins, is involved in fluoride-induced IL-6 and IL-8 responses in A549 cells.

Romundstad P, Haldorsen T, Andersen A - "Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality among workers in two Norwegian aluminum reduction plants" Am J Ind Med 37(2):175-83 (2000)

"Mortality from these diseases was associated with cumulative exposure to fluorides."

Romundstad P, Andersen A, Haldorsen T - "Nonmalignant mortality among workers in six Norwegian aluminum plants" Scand J Work Environ Health 26(6):470-5 (2000)

Seixas NS, Cohen M, Zevenbergen B, Cotey M, Carter S, Kaufman J -"Urinary fluoride as an exposure index in aluminum smelting"
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