The Madrid Statement

The Madrid Statement

Postby pfpcnews » Wed Jan 13, 2016 3:26 am

THE MADRID STATEMENT

The Madrid Statement documents the scientific consensus regarding the persistence and potential for harm of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and lays out a roadmap to gather needed information and prevent further harm.

It was published in the May 2015 issue of the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1509934/
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The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

As scientists and other professionals from a variety of disciplines, we are concerned about the production and release into the environment of an increasing number of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the following reasons:

PFASs are man-made and found everywhere. PFASs are highly persistent, as they contain perfluorinated chains that only degrade very slowly, if at all, under environmental conditions. It is documented that some polyfluorinated chemicals break down to form perfluorinated ones[1].
PFASs are found in the indoor and outdoor environments, wildlife, and human tissue and bodily fluids all over the globe. They are emitted via industrial processes and military and firefighting operations[2], [3], and they migrate out of consumer products into air[4], household dust[5], food[6], [7], [8], soil[9], [10], ground and surface water, and make their way into drinking water[11], [12].

In animal studies, some long-chain PFASs have been found to cause liver toxicity, disruption of lipid metabolism, the immune and endocrine systems, adverse neurobehavioral effects, neonatal toxicity and death, and tumors in multiple organ systems[13], [14]. In the growing body of epidemiological evidence, some of these effects are supported by significant or suggestive associations between specific long-chain PFASs and adverse outcomes, including associations with testicular and kidney cancers[15], [16], liver malfunction[17], hypothyroidism[18], high cholesterol[19], [20], ulcerative colitis[21], lower birth weight and size[22], obesity[23], decreased immune response to vaccines[24], and reduced hormone levels and delayed puberty[25].

Due to their high persistence, global distribution, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity, some PFASs have been listed under the Stockholm Convention[26] as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

As documented in the Helsingør Statement[27],

Although some of the long-chain PFASs are being regulated or phased out, the most common replacements are short-chain PFASs with similar structures, or compounds with fluorinated segments joined by ether linkages.

While some shorter-chain fluorinated alternatives seem to be less bioaccumulative, they are still as environmentally persistent as long-chain substances or have persistent degradation products. Thus, a switch to short-chain and other fluorinated alternatives may not reduce the amounts of PFASs in the environment. In addition, because some of the shorter-chain PFASs are less effective, larger quantities may be needed to provide the same performance.
While many fluorinated alternatives are being marketed, little information is publicly available on their chemical structures, properties, uses, and toxicological profiles.

Increasing use of fluorinated alternatives will lead to increasing levels of stable perfluorinated degradation products in the environment, and possibly also in biota and humans. This would increase the risks of adverse effects on human health and the environment.

Initial efforts to estimate the overall emissions of PFASs into the environment have been limited due to uncertainties related to product formulations, quantities of production, production locations, efficiency of emission controls, and long-term trends in production history[28].
The technical capacity to destroy PFASs is currently insufficient in many parts of the world.

Global action through the Montreal Protocol[29] successfully reduced the use of the highly persistent ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), thus allowing for the recovery of the ozone layer. However, many of the organofluorine replacements for CFCs are still of concern due to their high global warming potential. It is essential to learn from such past efforts and take measures at the international level to reduce the use of PFASs in products and prevent their replacement with fluorinated alternatives in order to avoid long-term harm to human health and the environment.

For these reasons, we call on the international community to cooperate in limiting the production and use of PFASs and in developing safer non-fluorinated alternatives. We therefore urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the following actions:

A. Scientists:

Assemble, in collaboration with industry and governments, a global inventory of all PFASs in use or in the environment, including precursors and degradation products, their functionality, properties, and toxicology.

Develop analytical methods for the identification and quantification of additional families of PFASs, including fluorinated alternatives.

Continue monitoring for legacy PFASs in different matrices and for environmental reservoirs of PFASs.

Continue investigating the mechanisms of toxicity and exposure (e.g., sources, fate, transport, and bioaccumulation of PFASs), and improve methods for testing the safety of alternatives.

Bring research results to the attention of policy makers, industry, the media, and the public.

B. Governments:

Enact legislation to require only essential uses of PFASs and enforce labeling to indicate uses.

Require manufacturers of PFASs to conduct more extensive toxicological testing, make chemical structures public, provide validated analytical methods for detection of PFASs, and assume extended producer responsibility and implement safe disposal of products and stockpiles containing PFASs.

Work with industry to develop public registries of products containing PFASs.

Make public annual statistical data on production, imports, and exports of PFASs.

Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs in government procurement.

In collaboration with industry, ensure that an infrastructure is in place to safely transport, dispose of, and destroy PFASs and PFAS-containing products, and enforce these measures.

C. Chemical manufacturers:

Make data on PFASs publicly available, including chemical structures, properties, and toxicology.

Provide scientists with standard samples of PFAS, including precursors and degradation products, to enable environmental monitoring of PFASs.

Provide the supply chain with documentation on PFASs content and safe disposal guidelines.

Work with scientists and governments to develop safe disposal methods for PFASs.

Develop nonfluorinated alternatives that are neither persistent nor toxic.

D. Product manufacturers and other professional users:

Stop using PFASs where they are not essential or when safer alternatives exist.

Develop inexpensive and sensitive PFAS quantification methods for compliance testing.

Label products containing PFASs, including chemical identity and disposal guidelines.

Invest in the development and use of nonfluorinated alternatives.

E. Purchasing organizations, retailers, and individual consumers:

Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs. These include many products that are stain-resistant, waterproof, or non-stick.

Question the use of such fluorinated “performance” chemicals added to consumer products.


References

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[2] Darwin RL. 2011. Estimated inventory of PFOS-based aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). Arlington, VA:Fire Fighter Fighting Foam Coalition. Available: http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/POPsR ... bjID=14391 [accessed 6 April 2015].

[3] Fire Fighting Foam Coalition. 2014. Fact Sheet on AFFF Fire Fighting Agents. Arlington, VA: Fire Firghting Foam Coalition. Available: http://www.fffc.org/images/AFFFfactsheet14.pdf [accessed 6 April 2015].

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[9] Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Nakayama SF, Egeghy PP, Helfant LJ. 2012. Pilot scale application of a method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in surface soils. Chemosphere 86(3):252-257; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.036.

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[13] Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring & toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99(2):366-394.

[14] Post GB, Cohn PD, Cooper KR. 2012. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: A critical review of recent literature. Environ Res 116:93-117; doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.007.

[15] Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Lauby-Secretan B, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, et al. 2014. Carcinogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid, tetrafluoroethylene, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,3-propane sultone. Lancet Oncol 15(9):924-925; doi:10.1016/ S1470-2045(14)70316-X.

[16] Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K. 2013. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 121(11-12):1313–1318; doi:10.1289/ehp.1306615.

[17] Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Frisbee SJ, Karlsson L, et al. 2012. Serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in a population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):655-660; doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104436.

[18] Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Mondal D, Armstrong B, Bloom MS, Fletcher T. 2012. Thyroid function and perfluoroalkyl acids in children living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 120(7):1036-1041; doi:10.1289/es1104370.

[19] Fitz-Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster MI, Steenland K, Calafat AM, Kato K, et al. 2013. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Epidemiology 24(4):569-576.

[20] Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster TF. 2010. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance in the general U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 118(2):197-202.

[21] Steenland K, Zhao L, Winquist A, Parks C. 2013. Ulcerative colitis and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a highly exposed population of community residents and workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley. Environ Health Perspect 121(8):900-905; doi:10.1289/ehp.1206449.

[22] Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. 2007. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 115(11):1677-1682; doi:10.1289/ehp.10506.

[23] Halldorsson TI, Rytter D, Haug LS, Bech BH, Danielsen I, Becher G, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):668-673; doi:10.1289/ehp.1104034.

[24] Grandjean P, Andersen EW, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Mølbak K, Weihe P, et al. 2012. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. J American Med Assoc 307(4): 391-397; doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2034.

[25] Lopez-Espinosa M, Fletcher T, Armstrong B, Genser B, Dhatariya K, Mondal D, et al. 2011. Association of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8160-8166; doi:10.1021/es1038694.

[26] United Nations Environment Programme. 2009. The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention. Châtelaine, Switzerland: Stockholm Convention, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://chm.pops.int/Implementation/NewP ... fault.aspx [accessed 6 April 2015].

[27] Scheringer M, Trier X, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Fletcher T, Wang Z, et al. 2014. Helsingør Statement on poly- & perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Chemosphere 114: 337-339; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.044.

[28] Wang Z, Cousins IT, Scheringer M, Buck RC, Hungerbühler K. 2014. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle. Environ Int 69:166-176; doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006.

[29] United Nations Environment Programme. 2012. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Nairobi, Kenya:Montreal Protocol, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/Treat ... p?sec_id=5 [accessed 6 April 2015].
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