State of the Mother

State of the Mother

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REFERENCE SET: THE STATE OF THE MOTHER
©2000 PFPC

“It is also noteworthy that it is stated that ‘fatalities due to premature births, according to the United States Bureau of Vital statistics, constitute one of the ten leading causes of death in Western and South Central States, where fluoride-contaminated water supplies are of common occurrence. The average death rate due to premature birth in all States is 26.7, but in high-fluorine Texas and New Mexico the death rates from this alone are 35.1 and 55.9 respectively’ says the report, as Hermann F. Strongin, MD, Ph.C, MPH, pointed out when he spoke in opposition to ‘fluoridation’ at Springfield, February 5.”


Steyn DG - "Once More - Fluoridation" Review; University of Pretoria NUWE REEKS No.24 (1964) Chief Research Officer, Division of Life Sciences, Atomic Energy Board, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, (Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria)
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Antonijevic N, Nesovic M, Trbojevic B, Milosevic - " Anemia in hypothyroidism" R Med Pregl 52(3-5):136-40 (1999)

Ballabio M, Nicolini U, Jowett T, Ruiz de Elvira MC, Ekins RP, Rodeck CH - "Maturation of thyroid function in normal human fetuses" Clin Endocrinol 31:565-71 (1992)

Bellisola G, Bratter P, Cinque G, Francia G, Galassini S, Gawlik D, Negretti de Bratter VE, Azzolina L - "The TSH-dependent variation of the essential elements iodine, selenium and zinc within human thyroid tissues" J Trace Elem Med Biol 12(3):177-82 (1998)

Bergman I, Hirsch RP, Fria TJ et al - "Causes of hearing loss in the high-risk premature infant" Journal of Pediatrics 106:95-101 (1985)

Bian J, Ye P, Xian S, Ji Q - "Accumulation and excretion of fluorine and effect of selenium on them in rats with chronic fluorosis" Wei Sheng Yen Chiu 26(4):233-8 (1997)

Boyages SC, Halpern J-P - "Endemic cretinism: Towards a unifying hypothesis" Thyroid 3(1):59-69 (1993)

Brimblecombe FSW, Ashford JR, Fryer JG -"Significance of low birth weight in perinatal mortality: A study of variations within England and Wales" Brit J Prev Soc  Medicine  22:27-55 (1968)

Boyle CA, Decoufle P, Holmgreen P - "Contribution of developmental disabilities to childhood mortality in the United States: a multiple-cause-of-death analysis" Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 8(4):411-22 (1994)

Caldera R, Chavinie J, Laurent AM, Fermanian J, Tortrat D - "Preliminary study on transplacental transfer of fluoride. Apropos of 41 mother-infant couples" J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 15(6):731-5 (1986)

Caldera R, Chavinie J, Fermanian J, Tortrat D, Laurent AM - " Maternal-fetal transfer of fluoride in pregnant women." Biol Neonate 54(5):263-9 (1988)

Capuco AV, Kahl S, Jack LJ, Bishop JO, Wallace H - "Prolactin and growth hormone stimulation of lactation in mice requires thyroid hormones" Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 221(4):345-51 (1999)

Chance G - "A warning from the cradle?" Editorial CMAJ 157:549-51 (1997) http://www.cma.ca/cmaj/vol-157/issue-5/0549.htm

Chek K, Kerr GR - "Factors associated with fetal mortality in the triethnic population in Texas, 1993 through 1995" Tex Med 95(12):78-83  (1999)

Chlubek D, Mokrzynski S, Machoy Z, Olszewska M - "Fluorides in the body of the mother and in the fetus. III. Fluorides in amniotic fluid" Ginekol Pol
66(11): 614-7 (1995)

"Fluoride concentrations in amniotic fluid as well as in venous and arterial cord blood serum were determined in 20 women during the perinatal period. The mean concentrations of fluoride from amniotic fluid, venous cord blood serum and arterial cord blood serum were 1,6 +/- 0,18 mumol/l, 3,2 +/- 0,28 mumol/l and 2,9 +/- 0,39 mumol/l respectively. Amniotic fluid fluoride concentrations were significantly higher in the older age group of pregnancies (39-42 weeks) in comparison with the younger age group of pregnancies (34-38 weeks).”


Crooks J, Aboul-Khair SA, Turnbull AC, Hytten FE - "The incidence of goitre during pregnancy" Lancet 2:334-336 (1964)

Darras VM, Hume R, Visser TJ - "Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism during fetal development" Mol Cell Endocrinol 151(1-2):37-47 (1999)

da Silva OP -" Prevention of low birth weight/preterm birth" In: Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care. Ottawa: Health Canada 38-50 (1994)  http://www.ctfphc.org/Full_Text/Ch04full.htm

DeLong GR - "Observations on the neurology of endemic cretinism" In: DeLong GR, Robbins J, Condliffe PG, eds. Iodine and the brain. New York: Plenum Press 231-8 (1989)

Denver RJ, Ouellet L, Furling D, Kobayashi A, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Puymirat J - "Basic transcription element-binding protein (BTEB) is a thyroid hormone-regulated gene in the developing central nervous system. Evidence for a role in neurite outgrowth." J Biol Chem 274(33):23128-34 (1999)

Drury MI -"Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy" J R Soc Med 79:317-318 (1984)
Dunn HG, Robertson, AM, Crichton JV - "Clinical outcome: Neurologic sequelae and their evolution." In 'Sequelae of low birthweight: The Vancouver Study. Clinics in Developmental Medicine series' HG. Dunn, ed. London: Mac Keith, pp. 68-96. (1986)

Ebert JD -"The First Heartbeats" Sci Am 56:3-9 (1959)
Ellenberg J, Nelson KB - "Birthweight and gestational age in children with cerebral palsy or seizure disorders" American Journal of Diseases of Children  133:1044-48 (1979)

El-Missiry MA - "Prophylactic effect of melatonin on lead-induced inhibition of heme biosynthesis and deterioration of antioxidant systems in male rats." J Biochem Mol Toxicol 14(1):57-62 (2000)

Evans IM, Sinha AK, Pickard MR, Edwards PR, Leonard AJ, Elkins RP - "Maternal hypothyroxinemia disrupts neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in developing brain."  J Endocrinol 161(2):273-9  (1999)

Fearne JM, Bryan EM, Elliman AM, Brook AH, Williams DM - "Enamel defects in the primary dentition of children born weighing less than 2000 g" Br Dent J 168(11):433-7 (1990)

Frank JE, Faix JE, Hermos RJ, Mullaney DM, Rojan DA, Mitchell ML, Klein RZ - "Thyroid function in very low birth weight infants: effects on hypothyroidism screening" J Pediatr 128:548-54 (1996) 

Gallo JE, Lennerstrand G - "A population based study of ocular abnormalities in premature children aged 5 to 10 years: A regional study." American Journal of Ophthalmology  11:539-47 (1991)

Glinoer D -"The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology" Endocr Rev 18:404 (1997)

Glinoer D - "What happens to the normal thyroid during pregnancy?" Thyroid 9(7):631-5  (1999)

Grigorenko VK, Bachinskii PP, Grebennikova VF - "Effect of fluorine on enzyme activity in the small intestine mucosa during absorption of sodium, potassium, monosaccharides and amino acids" Ukr Biokhim Zh 59(3):23-8 (1987)

Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Allan WC, et al. -"Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child." N Engl J Med 341:549-55 (1999)

Hessol N,  Fuentes-Afflick E - "The influence of maternal nativity on birth weight" In: Abstracts of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research; Jun 21-24 (1995); Snowbird (Utah); Am J Epidemiol 141(11 Suppl):S22 (No 87)(1995)

Hsu CH, Chang JH, Lee YJ, Hung HY, Kao HA, Huang FY - "Thyroid function in the sick very low-birth-weight infants" Chung Hua Min Kuo Hsiao Erh Ko I Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih 40(4):237-42 (1999)

Irie N - "A study on incidence of developmental disabilities in Higashi-Osaka City, Japan, 1988-1992" No To Hattatsu 31(1):32-7 (1999)

Johnsen D, Krejci C, Hack M, Fanaroff - "Distribution of enamel defects and the association with respiratory distress in very low birthweight infants"  Dent Res 63(1):59-64  (1984)

Joseph KS, Kramer MS "Recent trends in infant mortality rates and proportions of low-birth-weight live births in Canada" CMAJ 57(5):535-41 (1997)

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Kramer M -"Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis"  Bull World Health Organ 65: 663-737 (1987)

Kraybill EN, Bose CL,  D'Ercole AJ - "Chronic lung disease in infants with VLBW." American Journal of Diseases of Children  141:784-88 (1987)

Krishnamurthy S, Prasanna D - "Serum vitamin E and lipid peroxides in malnutrition, hyper and hypothyroidism." Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 6(1):17-21(1984)

Lai PY, Seow WK, Tudehope DI, Rogers Y - "Enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in very-low birthweight children: a case-controlled, longitudinal study."Pediatr Dent 19(1):42-9 (1997)

Law WY, Bradley DM, Lazarus JH, John R, Gregory JW - "Congenital hypothyroidism in Wales (1982-1993): demographic features, clinical presentation and effects on early neurodevelopment" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 48(2):201-7 (1998)

Lee, K., Paneth, N., Gartner, L., et al - "Neonatal mortality: An analysis of the recent improvement in the United States" American Journal of Public Health 80:15-21(1980)

Lejeune J, Peeters M, de Blois MC, Bergere M, Grillot A, Rethore MO, Vallee G, Izembart M, Devaux JP - "Thyroid function and trisomy 21. TSH increase and rT3 deficiency" Ann Genet 31(3):137-43  (1988)

Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M, Mestman JH - "Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies" Gynecol 81(3):349-53 (1993)

Leviton A, Paneth N, Reuss ML, Susser M, Allred EN, Dammann O, Kuban K, Van Marter LJ, Pagano M - "Hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and the risk of cerebral white matter damage" J Pediatr 134(6):706-11 (1999)

Li Y, Navia JM, Bian JY - "Caries experience in deciduous dentition of rural Chinese children 3-5 years old in relation to the presence or absence of enamel hypoplasia." Caries Res 1996;30(1):8-15 

Licastro F, Mocchegiani E, Zannotti M, Arena G, Masi M, Fabris N - "Zinc affects the metabolism of thyroid hormones in children with Down's syndrome: normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone and of reversal triiodothyronine plasmic levels by dietary zinc supplementation" Int J Neurosci 65(1-4):259-68 (1992)

Long TJ, Felice ME, Hollingsworth R - "Goitre in pregnant teenagers" Am J Obstet Gynecol 152:670-674 (1985)

Matsui Y, Kitade H, Kamiya T, Kanemaki T, Hiramatsu Y, Okumura T, Kamiyama Y - " Adenylate energy charge of rat and human cultured hepatocytes." In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 30A(9):609-14 (1994)

NOTE:
Transport of T4 is greatly affected by even a slight decrease in ATP concentration, which affects T3 transport much less. Inhibition of T4 transport into the liver leads to low normal serum T3 and an elevated serum T4, resulting in an increased T4/T3 ratio. As the fetus is wholly dependent on the mother's T4 during the first trimester of gestation, this is of great importance as fluoride will inhibit ATP (T4 transport) in the placenta.

FLUORIDE/ATP (1200+ related papers)

see for more info:
Hennemann G - "Cellular Uptake of Thyroid Hormones" in: The Thyroid Manager McCormick MC, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM - "Very low birthweight children: Behavior problems and school difficulties in a national sample" Journal of Pediatrics 117:687-93 (1990)

Mellander M, Noren JG, Freden H, Kjellmer I - "Mineralization defects in deciduous teeth of low birthweight infants" Acta Paediatr Scand 71(5):727-33  (1982 )
(the highest prevalence of mineralization disturbances in infants born during winter months)

Moreno-Reyes R, Suetens C, Mathieu F, Begaux F, Zhu D, Rivera MT, Boelaert M, Neve J, Perlmutter N, Vanderpas J - "Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy in rural Tibet in relation to selenium and iodine status" N Engl J Med 339(16):1112-20 (1998)

Morreale de Escobar G, Ruiz de Ona C, Obregon MJ, Escobar del Rey F -"Models of fetal iodine deficiency." In: DeLong GR, Robbins J, Condliffe PG, eds. 'Iodine and the brain' New York: Plenum Press, 1989:187-201(1989)

Murray TK - "Goitre in Canada" Can J Public Health 68:431-432 (1977)

National Center for Health Statistics -"Advance report of final natality statistics, 1991" Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42, No. 3, Suppl. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service (1993)

Nedrebo BG, Ericsson UB, Nygard O, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Aakvaag A, Aanderud S, Lien EA - "Plasma total homocysteine levels in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients" Metabolism 47(1):89-93 (1998)

Nelson RL- "Is the changing pattern of colorectal cancer caused by selenium deficiency?" Dis Colon Rectum 27(7):459-61 (1984)
NIH:Study Links Neonatal Thyroid Function to Cerebral Palsy (1996)

Noren JG, Alm J -"Congenital hypothyroidism and changes in the enamel of deciduous teeth" - Acta Paediatr Scand 72(4):485-9 (1983)

Ohira M, Seki N, Nagase T, Suzuki E, Nomura N, Ohara O, Hattori M, Sakaki Y, Eki T, Murakami Y, Saito T, Ichikawa H, Ohki M- "Gene identification in 1.6-Mb region of the Down syndrome region on chromosome 21" Genome Res 7(1):47-58 (1997)

Oppenheimer JH, Schwartz HL - "Molecular basis of thyroid hormone-dependent brain development" Endocr Rev 18:462-475 (1997)

Paneth, NS - "The Problem of Low Birth Weight" The Future of Children Vol. 5 No. 1  (1995) http://www.futureofchildren.org/LBW/03LBWPAN.htm

Paneth, NS - "Recent trends in preterm delivery rates in the United States" INSERM Colloque: Prevention of Preterm Birth 138:15-30 (1986)

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)- "Health Conditions in the Americas" Vol. I, Scientific Publication No. 524 (PAHO, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 58.

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Paul DA, Leef KH, Stefano JL, Bartoshesky L - "Low serum thyroxine on initial newborn screening is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage and death in very low birth weight infants" Pediatrics 101(5):903-7 (1998)

Pic P, Remy L, Mazzella E, Rua S - "Cyclic AMP as the second hormonal messenger in the in vitro folliculogenesis of the foetal thyroid gland of the rat" Cell Tissue Res 232(1):65-77  (1983)

Pop VJ, Kuijpens JL, van Baar AL, Verkerk G, van Son MM, de Vijlder JJ, Vulsma T, Wiersinga WM, Drexhage HA, Vader HL - "Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy." Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) (1999) 50(2):149-55
("Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. )

Radetti G, Renzullo L, Gottardi E, D'Addato G, Messner H - “Altered thyroid and adrenal function in children born at term and preterm, small for gestational age” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89(12):6320-4 (2004)

Rakover Y, Weiner E, Mosh N, Shalev E - "Fetal pituitary negative feedback at early gestational age" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 50(6):809-14 (1999)

Radunovic N, Dumez Y, Nastic D, Mandelbrot L, Dommergues M -"Thyroid function in fetus and mother during the second half of normal pregnancy" Biol Neonate 59:139-48 (1991)

Reuss ML, Paneth N, Pinto-Martin JA, Lorenz JM, Susser M -"The relation of transient hypothyroxinemia in preterm infants to neurologic development at two years of age" N Engl J Med 1334:821-7 (1996)

Reuss ML, Leviton A, Paneth N, Susser M -"Thyroxine values from newborn screening of 919 infants born before 29 weeks' gestation" Am J Public Health 87:1693-7.(1997)

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Richard K, Hume R, Kaptein E, Sanders JP, van Toor H, De Herder WW, den Hollander JC, Krenning EP, Visser TJ - "Ontogeny of iodothyronine deiodinases in human liver" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83(8):2868-74 (1998)
"Therefore, the low serum T3 levels in the human fetus appear to be caused by high hepatic (and placental) D3 activity rather than caused by low hepatic D1 activity...”


Rooman RP, Du Caju MVL, Op De Beeck, Docx M, Van Acker -"Low thyroxinaemia occurs in the majority of very preterm newborns. Eur J Pediatr 55:211-5 (1996)

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Shi J, Dai G, Zhang Z - "Relationship between bone fluoride content, pathological change in bone of aborted fetuses and maternal fluoride level" Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 29(2):103-5 (1995)

" Fluoride levels in maternal urine and amniotic fluid and fluoride content in fetal femur and pathological change in fetal femur appeared a positive correlation between them. Femur fluoride content and pathological change of bone in fetuses born to mothers with mottling teeth were significantly greater than to those without them. Pathological change in fetal femur presented dose-response relationship with their bone fluoride content. When the latter reached greater than 500 micrograms/g, pathological changes occurred in 90% of the bone. "

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Statistics Canada - "The Daily"
http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/961017/d961017.htm

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