Switzerland I

Switzerland
© 2000-2004 PFPC

90% of the people use fluoridated toothpaste.

6 times a year school children are exposed to toothbrushing regimens with fluoride toothpastes.

Fluoridated salt is available everywhere and used by 85% of the population.

Numerous cantons already fluoridate all salt supplies destined for human consumption.

The Swiss Jod & Fluor Commission recommends that all canteens, restaurants etc. use fluoridated salt.

The Swiss Health Observatory recommends that even small children use fluoride toothpaste every day, and that this could be accomplished by programs impletented in day care/nursery settings which are being expanded nationally (SHO - 2002).

In addition Swiss soil is severely fluoride polluted, often containing more fluoride than is known to cause dental fluorosis in animals.

And if that wasn’t enough, there are now new reports showing that many drinking water supplies in Switzerland contain fluorides > than 0.5 ppm. (The warning label on fluoridated salt in France states NOT to use fluoridated salt if the water contains more than 0.5 mg/L fluoride...)

    “The aim of this study was to collect data on the fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the different regions of Switzerland.... In nearly sixty localities, fluoride content was equal or above 0.5 mg/l: for 24 wells, the fluoride concentration was between 0.5 mg/l and 0.7 mg/l; for another 35 wells, fluoride content was > or = 0.7 mg/l.” (Vivien-Castioni & Baehni, 2003)

Fluoridated Salt

   In 1955 Switzerland became the first country in the world to fluoridate salt. Originally fluoridated at 90 ppm, since 1970 all salt destined for human consumption is fluoridated at 250 ppm in Canton Waadt (Lausanne), and since 1974 also in the Canton Glarus.

   By 1991, 75% of the domestic salt in Switzerland  contained fluoride at 250 ppm.

   In 2003 it was reported that now 85% of the population consumed fluoridated salt (GSK, 2003).

Soil Pollution

   In Switzerland fluoride continues to be one of the worst soil pollutants. (Polluted soil stays polluted. Nothing can be done to remedy the situation.)There are 105 stations throughout Switzerland which meassure numerous man-made pollutants in soil (NABO) and a report is published every 5 years.

   In 1993, the first NABO report stated that fluoride content in top soil ranged from 234 to 715 mg/kg, in bottom soil from 250 - 695 mg/kg.

   Out of the 105 stations, 57 reported fluoride content higher than the 400 mg/kg legal ceiling, while 62 reported reported the same in bottom soil.

   Instead of dealing with the issue and trying to reduce fluoride contamination, the legal limit was raised - to 700 ppm, almost double the original amount.

   By 1998 fluoride content in top soil had risen to 765 ppm and in bottom soil to 755 ppm. Now 15 stations reported excessive fluoride (> 700 ppm) in top soil and 15 in bottom soil (BUWG, 2000).

    “Soil with fluoride levels higher than between 450 ppm and 850 ppm is likely to lead to chronic fluorosis.” (Furness, 2002)

SOURCES & RESOURCES

Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft  (2000)

Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft - Vom Menschen verursachte Belastungen von Böden (1997) http://www.buwal.ch/d/themen/umwelt/boden/dk10u02.pdf

Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft - NABO Status (2003)
http://www.umwelt-schweiz.ch/buwal/de/fachgebiete/fg_boden/nabo/nabostatus/

Furness H - “Fluorosis - Fluoride and animal welfare”  Fert Research (2002)

GSK - "Bericht der Gesundheits-und Sozialkomission des Grossen Rates zum Anzug Rene Brigger betreffend Fluoridierung des Basler Trinkwassers" [9229/P975485]
http://www.bs.ch/ber-9229.pdf

Menghini G, de Crousaz P, Steiner M, Helfenstein U, Sener B - “Urinary excretion of fluorides in schoolchildren of Lausanne and Geneva in relation to salt fluoridation” Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 99(3):292-8 (1989)

Swiss Health Observatory - "Monitoring der oralen Gesundheit in der Schweiz" PDF (2002)

SVE-Medienmailing Nr. 01 - November 2002
http://www.sve.org/d/dienstleistungen/ratgeber/ihre_fragen_unsere_a ntworten/nahrungsmittel/diverses/himalaja_salz.html

Switzerland - Unsere Lebensgrundlagen (2002)
http://www.buwal-herakles.admin.ch/umweltbericht/de/d-047-056-Boden.pdf

Switzerland Statistics - Boden Statistik (2002)
http://www.statistik.admin.ch/stat_ch/ber02/env_ch/pdf/2.1_d.pdf

Vivien-Castioni N, Baehni P - “Fluoride content of Swiss drinking water”  Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 113(12):1276-80 (2003)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1 4968702